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Course Syllabus

PACE 485 – Conflict and Peace Making in Southeast Asia

(Fall 2004)CRN 88536, Thu 6:00-8:30PM, Moore Hall 109

 

Federico V. Magdalena, Ph.D.

Moore Hall 415

Tel: 956-6086 (day) /944-6265 (eve)

Email: fm@hawaii.edu

 

 

Course Description

 

In recent years, Southeast Asia has come out of the doldrums. It caught the world’s attention due to the deadly Bali bombing on October 12, 2002, and the series of bombings in other places, all were linked to the “9/11 event” (Sept 11, 2001) in New York, and the consequent global war on terror.This course examines the Islamic side of the issue as it also explores the other conditions associated with internal conflict in this troubled region. More importantly, it puts together a wide array of conflict situations that reflect the various levels of experience (global, national and local) on the ways by which conflict is handled in Southeast Asia. It examines the process of conflict and its transformation to peace using case studies of disputing groups, including third parties, and how governments, rebel groups and civil societies help cause the transformation effort.

 

Among the questions to be explored in the course are these: What is the nature of conflict? Why, how and when does it occur? What role do ethnicity and culture, and a normative group called civil society, play in the outbreak and termination/ management of conflict? Can “nonviolent” strategies work under “violent subcultures”? Is it possible to resolve conflict in “deeply divided” ethnic groups and cultures? How do the participants move on with their normal lives and sustain the peace? What actions are applied to avoid regressing back to conflict and sustain the gains of peace?The course will lead students to examine independently and through class discussions available literature on conflict and peace making in the Philippines, Indonesia, East Timor, Malaysia, Singapore, Burma and Thailand, among others.

 

In the end, participants shall gain insights into the dynamics of conflict, map out the transition from conflict to peace, and be able to apply successful post-conflict concepts (best practices) for possible replication in other settings.

 

Requirements and Grading

 

Two examinations (35%), a major paper (30%), attendance (15%), and oral reports (20%).Students must attend at least 75% of the class sessions to make the grade. Grading is determined as follows: 91-100% = A, 81-90% = B, 71-80% = C,61-70% = D, 60 & below = F.

 

Method

 

The course is a seminar type, fortified with lectures, class discussions and some video presentation to enrich content.It is essentially participatory.Hence class members are encouraged to actively participate in class discussions and debates.Discussion leaders are appointed to tackle important topics on area studies where conflicts and peace making activities have been reported.

 

The following countries offer case studies for the analysis of conflict and peace making in Southeast Asia.

 

1. The Philippines

 

The Moro (Muslim) secessionist movement in the southern Philippines stands out among the social conflicts the country. How does the government respond to this problem? In the northern part, in the Cordillera region, a similar issue is also brewing. What is the role played by civil society (e.g., religious groups and NGOS) in the peace process? What is the status of the autonomous program in these two regions? What happens to the 1996 Peace Agreement forged between the government and the Moro National Liberation Front? What is its connection with the present peace talks with another faction, the Moro Islamic Liberation Front?

 

Two mixed communities in Mindanao and one in Luzon will also be taken up to highlight non-governmental, but culturally appropriate, mechanisms of peace making and creating peaceful communities. In Luzon, the traditional process of peace making called bodong among the Cordillerans will be discussed as a practice that has persisted to these days even among the educated and modern members of the tribal communities. In Mindanao, the Maladeg and Tulunan “peace zones” will be explored, as well as the role of multisectoral religious groups. The Moro concept of kambitiyara (consensus building) with the use of respectable intermediaries will also be analyzed as a traditional method of mediation.

 

2. Malaysia

 

The peaceful, nonviolent Semang in Eastern Malaysia will be examined to learn about their ways of avoiding conflict and developing peaceful and conciliatory solutions once actual and violent confrontation occurs. Moreover, some warrior groups like the Dayaks/Ibans of North Borneo, Malaysia (also in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia), also sue for peace.How do they do it?What mechanisms of social control do they employ to avoid expressions of conflict once it has occurred?

 

More importantly, Malaysia is known for its successful management of ethnic conflict arising from deeply divided cultures – Hindu, Malay and Chinese – after the lethal 1969 race riots.How does the state do it? What are the short and long-term implications of state policies (e.g., the bumiputra or Malay-first policy) to sustain the peace and promote development?

 

4. Singapore

 

Formerly part of the Federation of Malaysia, Singapore as a break-away nation is probably the most economically progressive in the region.There has been no reported riot or communal violence in this tiny island state since its independence in 1965.The state apparatus is very much like Malaysia, with an authoritarian regime that allows for no expression of ethnic violence.But is this what keeps the peace, or something else? Two minority groups exist in Singapore, Malays and Indians, as in Malaysia.However, Singapore is dominated by the Chinese while Malaysia by the Malay majority. Like its neighboring Malaysia, the Singapore government has effectively controlled social tension due to ethnic differences.What is its secret?

 

5. East Timor

 

How does this world’s newest nation cope up with the post-conflict trauma since it became independent in 2001? What programs does this predominantly Catholic nation install to deal with the minoritized Muslims? What role does colonization have in the creation of the conditions for ethnic conflict between Christianized East Timorese and Islamized Indonesians?

 

6. Indonesia

 

Being the world’s largest Muslim country and the most diverse society in Southeast Asia, what does Indonesia do to reconcile the many and fractious groups to avoid conflict?Is the state effective in its programs, if any, to bring about peaceful relations among its multicultural population? What do Islamists outside the government circle do in response to their changing political and cultural environments? Given the violent, internecine Muslim-Christian conflict and the Aceh rebellion, what are the prospects of peaceful change?What exactly is the nature of the highly controversial and “terrorist” organization, the Jemaah Islamiyah and the lesser known Laskar Jihad?Do they have links to Osama Bin Laden’s Al Qaeda network? What is jihad and what is its connection, if any, to the recent troubles in Maluku and Sulawesi (Celebes), the Bali bombing in Indonesia, and other activities of militant (terrorist) organizations in Southeast Asia?

 

Bali, being culturally influenced by Hindiusm, is perhaps atypical of most Indonesian island communities.Generally docile and not prone to violence, how do the Hinduized Balinese handle conflict?What lessons can be learned from their experiences that may be taught in other settings?

 

7. Thailand

 

Primarily Buddhists and peace-loving people, conflicts do arise in Thailand, the only country in Southeast Asia which does not have a colonial experience. Of particular importance is the Muslim secessionist movement in southern Thailand, which is connected to some terrorist activities like bombing and destruction of government installations. What are they really fighting for? Is there a possibility of re-integrating the Malay Muslim population with their Malay brethrens in Malaysia? Compared to the southern Philippines, why is the Thai secessionist question less "active"? Thailand also has a share of the ethnic problems affecting the Karen people and other minorities.

 

8. Burma (Myanmar)

 

Not much is written about Burma, but certainly it is not free from problems of social conflict, like the Islamic secessionism in Arakan, West Burma, and the Karen liberation movement in the north. Human rights violation was reportedly rampant, where tribal groups and other minorities suffer from political repression. Of particular importance is the conflict between the Islamic communities and the state, and cases of violent assimilation of the Karens and other hilltribes. What accounts for these internal conflicts in Burmese society?

 

9. Brunei Darrusalam

 

The smallest and among the youngest countries in Southeast Asia, Brunei Darrusalam is unique, being the only Islamic state not only in the region but also throughout the world. How does the state deal with a large non-Muslim minority groups?What makes this oil-rich country able to rein in militant Islamists and traditionally ethnic communities?Is there any inter-ethnic conflict in the country? How does civil society work in conflict avoidance/reduction?

 

10.Vietnam

 

Known for the deadly war in the 1970s, Vietnam is now unified under a communist regime. Having liquidated the remnants of westernization, has the Vietnamese government come to grips with its ethnic and minority problems?What types of conflict have replaced the ideological battle between capitalism and communism?

 

11. Cambodia

 

Like Vietnam, Cambodia is known for the genocidal war associated with the Khmer Rouge and with Vietnam.However, very little is known about the inter-ethnic conflict in this erstwhile war-torn country. What post-conflict measures are applied to keep the peace and avoid sliding back to war?

 

12.West New Guinea (Irian Jaya)

 

Not a country by itself, West New Guinea or Irian Jaya (in Indonesian), is the largest province of the state of Indonesia at 410,000 sq. kilometers. Geographically, Irian Jaya is bigger than six of 11 countries in Southeast Asia (Brunei Darrusalam, Singapore, Cambodia, the Philippines, Vietnam and Laos). Like the Aceh people, Irian Jaya is stirred by a secessionist movement.What are the conflict-peace experiences in West New Guinea?How did the Bougainville movement and OPM (Free Papua Movement) come into being, and what is the prospect of their early resolution? What are the consquences of the secessionist movement on the social and economic status of the Papua region?

 

Schedule for Fall Semester 2004

 

At 2.5 hours per week of class, the schedule is tentatively ordered as follows:

 

WEEK ONE (Aug 26) – Introduction to the theories and concepts of conflict and peace making, ethnicity, how indigenous peoples have utilized traditional, yet time-tested techniques of regulating conflicts and violence. State-ethnic conflicts are also discussed in countries where they have occurred, and the role of civil society in mitigating the conflict situation once it has arisen. The instructor also explains the detailed methodology and class requirements.

 

Readings: (*Highly recommended reading)

*Ganguly, Rajat and Ian Macduff (eds.). Ethnic Conflict & Secessionism in South & Southeast Asia: Causes, Dynamics, Solutions. New Delhi: Sage, 2003. DS 341 E855. Also in http://www.flonnet.com/fl2002/stories/20030131080807500.htm

Hall, Thomas D. “The Effects of Incorporation into World-Systems on Ethnic Processes: Lessons from the Ancient World for the Contemporary World,” In http://www2.hawaii.edu/~fredr/hall.htm.

*Leung, Kwok & Dean Tjosvold.Conflict Management in Asia-Pacific: Assumptions and Approaches in Diverse Cultures,Singapore ; New York ; Chichester, England : J. Wiley & Sons (Asia), c1998. HD42 C655 1998

*Lobell, Steven E. & Philip Maureci (eds.). Ethnic Conflict and International Politics: Explaining Diffusion and Escalation. New York: Plagrave Macmillan, 2004. GN 496 E8378.

Riggs, Fred W. “Ethnic Diversity, Nationalism and Constitutional Democracy,” In http://www2.hawaii.edu/~fredr/formost.htm.

Ross, Mark Howard & Jay Rothman, Theory and Practice in Ethnic Conflict Management, Houndmills [England] : Macmillan Press ; New York : St. Martin's Press, 1999.HM 136 T478

Scherrer, Christian. Ethnicity, nationalism, and violence : conflict management, human rights, and multilateral regimes . Aldershot, England: Ashgate, c2003. JZ1251 .S34 2003

Scherrer, ChristianStructural Prevention of Ethnic Violence.Houndmills [England] ; New York:Palgrave Macmillan, 2002. GN496 S37 2002

*Ter-Gabrielian, Gevork. “Strategies in ‘Ethnic’ Conflict,” In http://www.cwis.org/fwj/41/ethnic.html

Tidwell, Alan & Andy Carl. Perspectives on Conflict and Post-Conflict,Canberra, ACT : Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, 2003. DU 490 A2 S73

*Tilly, Charles.The politics of collective violence. Cambridge, U.K. ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 2003. HM886 T55 2003

 

WEEK TWO (Sept 2) –Islam and Terrorism in Southeast Asia.Islam, jihad, and Islamic fundamentalism; Jemaah Islamiyah, the Bali bombing, links with the al-Qaeda network; and the global war on terror.

 

Readings:

Christoffersen, Gaye, “The War on Terrorism in Southeast Asia: Searching for Partners, Delimiting Targets.” (2002) In http://www.ccc.nps.navy.mil/si/mar02/eastAsia.asp.

*Frost, Frank et al. “Terrorism in Southeast Asia,” In http://www.aph.gov.au/library/intguide/FAD/sea.htm#al.

*Gunaratna, Rohan. “Al-Qaeda in the Asia Pacific: Origins, Capability and Threat,” In http://www.iias.nl/iiasn/29/gunaratna.html.

*Lee Kuan Yew. “The East Asian Strategic Balance after 9/11,” In http://sg.news.yahoo.com/020530/57/2qiur.html

*Magdalena, Federico V. “Islam and the Politics of Identity: Lessons from the Philippines and Southeast Asia,” In http://www.hawaii.edu/cps/identity.html.

*Manyin, Mark et al., “Terrorism in Southeast Asia.” (Nov. 2003) In http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/27533.pdf.

Ramakrishna, Kumar. “An Indirect Strategy for Tramping Al-Qaeda in Southeast Asia,” In http://www.indopubs.com/sea3.html.

*Yuchengco, Alfonso. “Islamist Terrorism in Southeast Asia.” Pacific Forum CSIS, Hawaii, Jan. 2003. In http://www.csis.org/pacfor/issues%5Cv03n01_pdf.pdf

 

WEEKS THREE-FOUR (Sept 9, 16) – Philippines: State and Ethnic Conflict (Moro peoples).History and contemporary peace process between the government and the Moro (Muslim) peoples of Mindanao and Sulu.

 

Readings:

Casiño, Eric S. “Interethnic conflict in the Philippine archipelago,” pp.231-254. in J.Boucher, D.Landis & K.A.Clark (eds.). Ethnic Conflict: International Perspectives, Newbury Park: Sage Publications, 1987.

*Che Man, W. K. Muslim Separatism: The Moros of Southern Philippines and the Muslims in Thailand. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1990. DS 688 M2 K2 1990.

*Frake, Charles. “Abu Sayyaf: Displays of Violence and the Proliferation of Contested Identities among Philippine Muslims.” American Anthropologist, March 1998.Also, in http://www.indopubs.com/sea2.html.

Garrido, Marco. “The Evolution of Muslim Insurgency.“ (Philippines) In http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Southeast_Asia/EC06Ae03.html.

*Gutierrez, Eric and Saturnino Borras, Jr. “The Moro Conflict: Landlessness and Misdirected Policies.” East-West Center Washington, Policy Studies No. 8 (2004). In http://www.eastwestcenter.org/stored/pdfs/PS008.pdf.

*Magdalena, Federico V. “The Peace Process in Mindanao: Problems and Prospects,” Southeast Asian Affairs 1997. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1997.

*May, R. J. “The Moro Conflict and the Philippine Experience with Muslim Autonomy,” In http://rspas.anu.edu/papers/conflict/may_moro.pdf.

*McKenna, Thomas M. “Saints, Scholars and the Idealized Past in Philippine Muslim Separatism.” (March 2002) In http://www.cityu.edu.hk/searc/WP23_02_McKenna.pdf.

Raman, B. “Southern Philippines: A Recipe for Violence,” In http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Southeast_Asia/EC06Ae02.html.

Rodil, B. R. Kalinaw Mindanao: The Story of the GRP-MNLF Peace Process, 1975-1996. Davao City: AFRIM, 2000. DS 688 M2 R63.

Turner, Mark R. “Terrorism and Secession in the Southern Philippines: The Rise of the Abu Sayyaf,” Contemporary Southeast Asia 17 (1995): 1-19.

*Warren, James Francis. Iranun and Balangingi: Globalization, Maritime Raiding and the Birth of Ethnicity. Singapore: Singapore University Press, 2002.DS 688 S9 W377 2002

*Yegar, Moshe. Between Integration and Secession: Philippines, Thailand and Burma. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books, 2002.DS 570 M85 2002.

 

WEEK FIVE (Sept. 23) – Interethnic conflict and Indigenous Peace making, Civil Society and the Peace Process.Cordillera (bodong, peace zone), Mindanao (bitiara, peace zones).

 

Readings:

Alderite, Arnold. “Jihad and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front in Mindanao,” In http://theezine.net/archive/Political/Liberal/Jihad-And-The-Moro-Islamic-Liberation-Front-In-Mindanao.html.

Guieb, Marilou. "Justice then and now in the Cordillera," In http://www.cyberdyaryo.com/features/f2000_0825_01.htm.

*Montiel, Cristina Jayme & Fr. Adelfo V. Briones. Cry out for Peace: Social Psychological Notes on Peacemaking in Local Governance. Quezon City: Ateneo Center for Social Policy and Public Affairs, 1995.DS 686.614 M667 1995 (two peace zones discussed here, Tulunan, Cotabato andEastern Samar)

Nanaman, Marilou Siton, “Local Peace Alternatives to Ethnic Conflict in Mindanao,” in http://seacsn.csps-ugm.or.id/papers/regionalws1/mariloue.html.

Rodil, Rudy B. et al., “B’laan-Danlag Brief Ethnohistory (Conflict Resolution),” In http://www.mindanao.com/kalinaw/people/blaan-danlag.htm.

Rodil, Rudy B. et al.,"The Ancestral Domain Claim of the Impahanong - Amusig Tribal Council Organization (Philippines)," In http://www.mindanao.com/kalinaw/people/impahanong.htm.

*Sta. Maria, Madelene A. “Local Peace Zones (Philippines),” In http://www.ids.ac.uk/ids/civsoc/final/philippines/phl6.doc.

 

WEEKS SIX-SEVEN (Sept 30, Oct. 7) – Conflict and the State in Malaysia. Bumiputra politics, Islamic movement and racial harmony.

 

Readings:

Belle, Carl Vadivella. “Tai Pucam in Malaysia: An Incipient Hindu Unity,” in http://murugan.org/research/belle.htm

Khoo Boo Teik, “Managing Ethnic Relations in Post-Crisis Malaysia and Indonesia: Lessons from the New Economic Policy?” in http://www.unrisd.org/80256B3C005BCCF9/httpNetITFramePDF?ReadForm&parentunid=22E1E0E487E13A1F80256B6D005786B7&parentdoctype=paper&netitpath=80256B3C005BCCF9/(httpAuxPages)/22E1E0E487E13A1F80256B6D005786B7/$file/khoo.pdf

*Leary John. Violence and the Dream People: Orang Asli in the Malayan Emergency 1948-1960. Ohio University Center for International Studies, 1995.DS 595.2 S3 L43 1995

Lee Hock Guan, “Ethnic Relations in Peninsular Malaysia: The Cultural and Economic Relations,” 2000. In http://www.iseas.edu.sg/sc12000.pdf.

Lee, R.L.M. (ed.). Ethnicity and Ethnic Relations in Malaysia. Monograph Series on Southeast Asia, Occasional Paper no. 12, 1986. De Kalb: Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Northern Illinois University.

Nagata, Judith A. “What is a Malay? Situational selection of ethnic identity in a plural society,” American Ethnologist1 (1974): 331-350.

Nash, Manning. “Ethncity in Peninsular Malaysia: The Idiom of Communalism, Confrontation, and Cooperation,” pp. 21-60 in Manning Nash, The Cauldron of Ethnicity in theModernWorld. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989.

*Ryter, Loren S. “A History of Race Relations in Malaysia,” In http://www.huaren.org/diaspora/asia/malaysia/racehis.html .

Safi, Louay. “Religion and Politics in Malaysia,” In http://home.att.net/~louaysafi/articles/2000/religion.htm

*Stubbs, Richard. “Malaysia: Avoiding Ethnic Strife in a Deeply Divided Society,” pp. 287-299 in Joseph V. Montville (ed.). Conflict and Peacemaking in Multiethnic Societies. Massachussets: Lexington Books, 1990. GN 496 C65 1990

*Wahab, Alwee. Rembau: Integration and Conflict in Negri Sembilan, Malaysia. Nedlands, Centre for Asian Studies, University of Western Australia, 1967. GN490 A45

 

WEEKS EIGHT-NINE (Oct. 14, 21) – Conflict and the State in Indonesia and East Timor (Javanization and Islamic response, Irian Jaya and Aceh secessionist movements). Inter-ethnic conflicts, e.g., Islamic militants like Laskar Jihad and Catholics in Maluku and Celebes, civil society. Conflict avoidance in Bali. What cultural techniques are used to reduce conflict?What is the role of cockfighting in conflict management?

 

Readings:

 

*Community-Based Reconciliation Process of Baku Bae in Maluku. Jakarta: Joint Committee of Baku Bae Maluku, 2001. DS 646.67 C66 2001.

Geertz, Clifford. “Notes on the Balinese Cockfight.” In the web: http://webhome.idirect.com/~boweevil/BaliCockGeertz.html (Part 1) and

http://webhome.idirect.com/~boweevil/BaliCockGeertz2.html.

“Indonesia: Towards the Path of Disintegration (A Strategic Perspective),” In http://www.apan-info.net.

Kleden, Ignas. “Conflicts in Indonesia: A Sociological Review,” In http://www.communalconflict.com/kleden.htm. This site also carries many short articles on the communal conflict in Indonesia (http://www.communalconflict.com)

*Linder, Dianne.” Ethnic Conflict in Kalimantan,” In http://www.american.edu/projects/mandala/TED/ice/kaliman.htm.

Lim Soei Liong, “The Chinese Minority in Indonesia,” In http://www.asienhaus.org/laender/indones/liem.htm

”Map of Conflict in Maluku,” Inhttp://media.isnet.org/ambon/BristolE.html

May, R. J.. “The Religious Factor in Three Minority Movements: The Moro of the Philippines, the Malays of Thailand and Indonesia’s West Papuans,” Journal of the Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs 12 (July 1991): 307-320.

Mackie, Jamie. “Ethnic Violence in Indonesia,” In http://www.huaren.org/focus/032299-01.html.

May, R. J. “External Support for the West Papua Movement,” pp. 158-180 K. M. Silva and R. J. May (eds.). Internationalization of Ethnic Conflict. London: Printer Pub., 1991.

apol - Indonesia Human Rights Campaign, “Killings in many parts of Indonesia,” (May 1999) In http://tapol.gn.apc.org/152nKill.htm.

*Mount, Frank, “Bali in Perspective: The War Against Radical Islam or Islamism.” In

http://www.geocities.com/pwhce/apr48.html#2.

*Pudjiastuti, Tri Nuke. “Migration and Conflict in Indonesia,” In http://www.iussp.org/Bangkok2002/S15Pudjiastuti.pdf.

*Rabasa, Angel & Peter Chalk. “Indonesia’s Transformation and the Stability of Southeast Asia,” (Chs. 1 , 4 & 9). In http://www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1344/MR1344.ch4.pdf.

*Rolls, Mark. “Indonesia's East Timor Experience,” pp. 166-194 in Rajat Ganguly and Ian Macduff (eds.). Ethnic Conflict & Secessionism in South & Southeast Asia: Causes, Dynamics, Solutions. New Delhi: Sage, 2003. DS 341 E855.

Tapol - Indonesia Human Rights Campaign, “Papuans Face Uncertain Future,” In http://tapol.gn.apc.org/176papu.htm.

Welsh, B. “Community at War: Rethinking Conflict in Ambon, Maluku,” (2003) In http://www.sais-jhu.edu/bwelsh/MelevlevPolicyPaper.pdf

Salla, Michel E. “Creating the Ripe Moment in the East Timor Conflict,” Journal of Peace Research 34 (1997): 449-466.

 

WEEK TEN (Oct 28) - Midterm Examination; other requirements.

 

WEEK ELEVEN (Nov. 4) – Conflict and State in Singapore & Brunei Darrussalam.Like Malaysia, how does the state unify the three ethnic groups (Chinese, Malay and Indians) in Singapore?Conflict and State in Brunei Darrusalam. What role does the state play in integration, and how successful is it?Are there inter-ethnic conflicts and rivalries? What is the influence of civil society in avoiding conflict?

 

Readings:

Clammer, John. “Ethnicity and Classification of Social Differences in Plural Societies: A Perspective from Singapore,” Anand C. Paranjpe ed.), Ethnic Identities and Prejudices: Perspectives from the Third World. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1986, pp. 9-23.

Kuo, Eddie Y. “Language Policy and Nation-Building in a Multi-Ethnic Society: The Case Singapore Model,” In http://www2.kokugakuin.ac.jp/ijcc/wp/cimac/kuo.html.

Lee Kuan Yew. “The East Asian Strategic Balance After 9/11,” In http://www.contactsingapore.org.sg/nm/global_talent/speeches/listPressReleaseNews.jsp?ReleaseID=16

Hussainmiya, B. A.. “Brunei Darussalam: A Nation at Peace,” In http://www.niu.edu/cseas/outreach/bruneipaper.htm

*Saim, Hj. Sainah Hj. “Brunei: Civil Society and Conflict Avoidance: The Case of Brunei Darussalem,” In http://www.seacsn.net.

 

WEEK TWELVE (Nov. 11) – HOLIDAY. (VETERANS)

 

WEEK THIRTEEN (Nov. 18) – Conflict and State in Thailand.What is the nature of the Islamic secessionism in southern Thailand?What parallels can be drawn with the Philippine Moros?What is the status of this movement and how is it related to the Jemaah Islamiyah?

 

Readings:

*Che Man, W. K. Muslim Separatism: The Moros of Southern Philippines and the Muslims in Thailand. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1990. DS 688 M2 K2 1990.

Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1984.

Gopinath, Aruna. “International Aspects of the Thai Muslim and Philippine Moro Issues: A Comparative Study,” pp. 125-147 in K. M. Silva and R. J. May (eds.). Internationalization of Ethnic Conflict. London: Printer Pub., 1991.

Lee, Gary Y. “Minority Politics in Thailand: A Hmong Perspective,” In http://www.hmongnet.org/hmong-au/thaihmg.htm.

Satha-Anand, Chaiwat. “TheInternationalization of Ethnic Conflict: The World According to the Thai Muslims,” pp. 148-157 in K. M. Silva and R. J. May (eds.). Internationalization of Ethnic Conflict. London: Printer Pub., 1991.

Uthai, Dulyakasem. “Muslim Malay Separation in Southern Thailand: Factors Underlying the Political Revolt,” pp. 217-233 in Lim, Joo-Jack and S. Vani (eds.) Armed Separatism in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1984.DS526.7.A75 1984

*Yegar, Moshe. Between Integration and Secession: Philippines, Thailand and Burma. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books, 2002.DS 570 M85 2002.

 

WEEK FOURTEEN (Nov.25) - HOLIDAY (THANKSGIVING).

 

WEEK FIFTEEN (Dec. 2) - Conflict and State in Cambodia, Laos & Vietnam.Majority-minority conflicts, and the process of reconciliation; border conflicts; international wars.

 

Readings:

Edwards, Penny. “Ethnic Chinese in Cambodia,” In http://www.cascambodia.org/chinese_cam.htm.

Morris, Catherine. “Peacebuilding in Cambodia: The role of Religion,” In http://www.peacemakers.ca/research/Cambodia/ReligionandPeacebuildingReportJan2001PT.html

Moser-Puangsuwan, Yeshua. “One Million Kilometers for Peace: Five Years of Peace Action Walks in Cambodia,” Journal of Peace Research 30 (May 1998): 48-60.

Rinaldo, Rachel. “Revisiting the Killing Fields: The Khmer Rouge and Globalization,” In http://www.mekong.net/cambodia/revisit.htm.

*Talentino, Andrea Kathryn. “Cambodia,” In http://wwics.si.edu/subsites/ccpdc/pubs/costs/chap09.pdf

Yimsut, Ronnie. “Cambodia: Nationalism, Patriotism, Racism and Fanaticism,” In http://www.mekong.net/cambodia/natlism.htm.

“Genocide victims accused of genocide (Laos),” In http://www.nnn.se/n-model/foreign/hmong.htm.

Lee, Gary Yia. “Ethnicity Minorities and National Building in Laos: The Hmong in the Lao State,” In http://www.hmongnet.org/hmong-au/hmonglao.htm.Also in http://www.atrax.net.au/userdir/yeulee/index.htm.

___________. "Minority policies and the Hmong", in Stuart-Fox, M. ed. Contemporary Laos. St. Lucia : University of Queensland Press, 1982.Also in http://www.atrax.net.au/userdir/yeulee/index.htm.

 

WEEK SIXTEEN (Dec. 9) – Conflict and State in Burma (Myanmar). Majority-minority conflicts, including Islamic secessionism in Arakan, and Karen Liberation Union (KNU).

 

Readings:

*Ahmed, Imtiaz. “Bangladesh-Myanmar Relations and the Stateless Rohingyas," In http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Imtiaz-Ahmed.html

“Burma's Ethnic Minority Issue: No Easy Solution,” Inhttp://www.prweb.com/releases/2002/6/prweb41418.htm

Lintner, Bertil. “The Internationalization of Burma’s Ethnic Conflict,” pp. 181-202 in K. M. Silva and R. J. May (eds.). Internationalization of Ethnic Conflict. London: Printer Pub., 1991.

*Matthews, Bruce. “Ethnic and Religious Diversity: Myanmar's Unfolding Nemesis,” In http://www.iseas.edu.sg/vr32001.pdf

*McLeod, George. “Behind Karen Lines," In http://asiarecipe.com/burstory.html

“Myanmar: Lack of Security in Counter-Insurgency Areas,” In http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/engASA160072002?OpenDocument&of=COUNTRIES\THAILAND

Wansai, Sai. “Ethnic Conflict in Burma: Historical Formation, Cause of Conflict and Contemporary Politics,” In http://www.peacehall.com/news/gb/english/2004/01/200401270544.shtml.

*Yawnghwe, Chao-Tzang. "Burma and National Reconciliation: Ethnic Conflict and State-Society Dysfunction" In http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/LIOB10-cty.htm.

*Yawnghwe, Harn. "Conflict Resolution from below: How do different ethnic groups work together to solve armed conflict?" In http://www.asienhaus.de/eurasien/nroasem/dokumente/ExperienceofMyanmarBurma.pdf.

*Yegar, Moshe. Between Integration and Secession: Philippines, Thailand and Burma. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books, 2002.DS 570 M85 2002.

 

WEEK SEVENTEEN (Dec. 16) - Lessons from the case studies; Strategies of conflict regulation and management; Analysis and integration, and wrapping up session. FINAL EXAMINATION and submission of all requirements.

 

Readings:

Deutsch, Morton & Peter Coleman (eds.), Handbook of Conflict Resolution: Theory and Practice,San Francisco : Jossey-Bass, c2000. HM 1126 H35 2000

*Funabashi, Yoichi (ed.), Reconciliation in the Asia-Pacific,Washington, D.C. : United States Institute of Peace Press, 2003. HM1126 R413 2003

Ghai, Yash, "Legal Responses to Ethnicity in South and Southeast Asia," In http://www.capi.uvic.ca/pubs/oc_papers/GHAI.pdf

*Jandt, Fred & Paul Pedersen (eds.), Constructive Conflict Management – Asia-Pacific Case,Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage Publications, c1996. HM 136 C69 1996. UH Law Main Collection.

Koch, Klaus-Friedrich. War and Peace in Jalemo: Management of Conflict in Highland New Guinea. Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Press, 1974.DU 744.35 J28 K62

Koch, Klaus-Friedrich. Anthropological perspective : patterns of conflict management : essays in the ethnography of law. Milan : A. Giuffrè ; Alphenaandenrijn Sijthoff and Noordhoff, 1979. K2100.A73 v4.

Ross, Mark Howard & Jay Rothman, Theory and Practice in Ethnic Conflict Management, Houndmills [England] : Macmillan Press ; New York : St. Martin's Press, 1999.HM 136 T478.

*Ter-Gabrielian, Gevork. “Strategies in ‘Ethnic’ Conflict,” In http://www.cwis.org/fwj/41/ethnic.html

*UNDPA/UNDP. “Narrative Report on the Seminar on Conflict Prevention and Peace-Building in Southeast Asia,” In http://www.aseansec.org/un_manila.htm.

 

Other References (*Highly Recommended)

 

Alker, Hayward, Gurr, T. Robert & K. Rumasinghe (eds.) Journeys through Conflict: Narratives and Lessons,Lanham, Md. ; Oxford : Rowman & Littlefield, c2001.JZ 6010 J68 2001

*Avruch, Kevin.Culture and Conflict Resolution,Washington, D.C. : United States Institute of Peace Press, 1998. HM136 A93 1998

Byrne, Sean & Cynthia Irving (eds.). Reconcilable Differences: Turning Points in Ethnopolitical Conflict, West Hartford, Conn. : Kumarian Press, 2000.GN496 R44 2000

Chayes, Antonia & Martha Minow (eds), Imagine Co-Existence:Restoring Humanity after Violent Ethnic Conflict,San Francisco : Jossey-Bass, 2003. HM 1121 I42 2003

Coy, Patrick G. & Lynne M. Woehrle (eds.). Social Conflicts and Collective Identities,Lanham, Md. : Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, c2000.2000. HM121 S63 2000

*Leung, Kwok & Dean Tjosvold.Conflict Management in Asia-Pacific: Assumptions and Approaches in Diverse Cultures,Singapore ; New York ; Chichester, England : J. Wiley & Sons (Asia), c1998. HD42 C655 1998

*Researching Disputes Across Cultures and Institutions.Program on Conflict Resolution, 1985-1990.Honolulu: University of Hawaii Program on Conflict Resolution,1990.HM 136 R47.

 

Videos/Documentaries (*Highly Recommended for Viewing)

 

*“Asia,” Rebuilding war-torn Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, Videotape 14504 (28 min)

“Cross-Cultural Approaches to Conflict Resolution,” Videotape 6432 (51 min, Asians in Hawaii)

*“East Timor,” Videotape 13680 (30 min); also *“Patria” (58 min)

*“The Killing Fields,” Cambodia, Videotape 643 (142 min. Winner of 3 Academy Awards)

“Fear and Hope in Cambodia,” Videotape 11970 (59 min)

“Thanh’s War,” Vietnam, Videotape 6458 (58 min)

“Fall of Saigon,” Videotape 12298 (60 min)

*“Rebels of the Forgotten World,” Irian Jaya, Indonesia, Videotape 10437 (52 min)

“Papua and New Guinea,” Indonesia, Videotape 6449 (20 min)

“Free Papua,” Irian Jaya (Indonesia), Videotape 12215 (39 min)

*“A Trial in East Kalimantan: The Dayak Resistance," (Indonesia), Videotape 18906 (50 min)

*“The Longest Struggle,” Karens of Burma, Videotape 11686 (52 min)

“Heroin Wars,” Burma, Videotape 13571 (3 vols)

“Between Two Worlds,” Hmong in America, Videotape 1370 (28 min)

“The Fight for Freedom” (about the MILF – In Bahasa Malay), Videotape 14570 (54 min)

“The Price of Power,” Philippines, Videotape 1260 (29 min)

*“Return to Lakag,” Philippines, Videotape 11532 (33 min)

“The Lost Tribe,” Tasaday of Mindanao (Philippines), Videotape 9985

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