Eradication Of Poverty Essay Writing

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The Alleviation of Poverty Essay

1600 Words7 Pages

Introduction
The alleviation of poverty and the increment of growth within a nation, such as ours, are achieved through the dual use of fiscal and monetary policy. The essay will give a brief description of both policies as well as the manner in which they theoretically operate when attempting to achieve their goals. A look at the current policies currently being used in the country and their success will be assessed in comparison with the policy aims. Lastly, a look at whether the current fiscal and monetary policies being used are actually achieving their goals and the reasons for their success of failure.
Definitions
According to the (Griffiths & Wall, 2005) the definition of the monetary policy is the governmental manipulation of the…show more content…

Introduction
The alleviation of poverty and the increment of growth within a nation, such as ours, are achieved through the dual use of fiscal and monetary policy. The essay will give a brief description of both policies as well as the manner in which they theoretically operate when attempting to achieve their goals. A look at the current policies currently being used in the country and their success will be assessed in comparison with the policy aims. Lastly, a look at whether the current fiscal and monetary policies being used are actually achieving their goals and the reasons for their success of failure.
Definitions
According to the (Griffiths & Wall, 2005) the definition of the monetary policy is the governmental manipulation of the demand and supply of money with the intention of achieving specified government objectives. The government will go about this manipulation by altering the two main variables that affect the demand and supply of money, namely being the quantity of money in the market and the rate of interest. In the South African context the monetary policy objectives are sought by altering the rate of interest. In the (Roux, 2008) the monetary policy is further defined as a mechanism to “smooth fluctuations in the prices, the balance of payments and employment” through either expansionary or restrictive policies being followed monetary policy committee. It should be noted that there are many opposing views to the effectiveness of the monetary policy in the

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Goal 1 aims to "End poverty in all its forms everywhere" and its targets aim to:

1.1 By 2030, eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere, currently measured as people living on less than $1.25 a day

1.2 By 2030, reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions

1.3 Implement nationally appropriate social protection systems and measures for all, including floors, and by 2030 achieve substantial coverage of the poor and the vulnerable

1.4 By 2030, ensure that all men and women, in particular the poor and the vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to basic services, ownership and control over land and other forms of property, inheritance, natural resources, appropriate new technology and financial services, including microfinance

1.5 By 2030, build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters

1.a Ensure significant mobilization of resources from a variety of sources, including through enhanced development cooperation, in order to provide adequate and predictable means for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, to implement programmes and policies to end poverty in all its dimensions

1.b Create sound policy frameworks at the national, regional and international levels, based on pro-poor and gender-sensitive development strategies, to support accelerated investment in poverty eradication action More
Future We Want recognizes that, while there has been progress in reducing poverty in some regions, this progress has been uneven and the number of people living in poverty in some countries continues to increase, with women and children constituting the majority of the most affected groups, especially in the least developed countries and particularly in Africa.

Sustained, inclusive and equitable economic growth in developing countries is identified as a key requirement for eradicating poverty and hunger and achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

Therefore, Future We Want highlights the importance to complement national efforts of developing countries by an enabling environment aimed at expanding the development opportunities of developing countries.

In paragraph 107, Member States recognize the important contribution that promoting universal access to social services can make to consolidating and achieving development gains.

Social protection systems that address and reduce inequality and social exclusion are essential for eradicating poverty and advancing the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. More
The General Assembly declared the Second UN Decade for the Eradication of Poverty (2008-2017) in December 2007 and selected as theme �Full Employment and Decent Work for All�.

This Second Decade was proclaimed to support the internationally agreed development goals related to poverty eradication, including the Millennium Development Goals. It has stressed the importance of reinforcing the positive trends in poverty reduction, experienced by some countries as well as the need of extending such trends to benefit people worldwide.

This Second Decade recognizes as well the importance of mobilizing financial resources for development at national and international levels and acknowledges that sustained economic growth, supported by rising productivity and a favourable environment, including private investment and entrepreneurship is vital for rising living standards More
Chapter 2 identifies eradication of poverty as the greatest global challenge facing the world today and as an
indispensable requirement for sustainable development, particularly for developing countries. JPOI recognizes the primary responsibility and role national governments and policies have for ensuring their own sustainable development and poverty eradication strategies.

The JPOI at the same time highlights the importance of concerted and concrete measures at all levels to enable developing countries to achieve their sustainable development goals as related to the internationally agreed poverty-related targets and goals, including those contained in Agenda 21, the relevant outcomes of other United Nations conferences and the United Nations Millennium Declaration. More
As recommended by the World Summit for Social Development, the General Assembly convened a special session in 2000 to revise and assess the implementation of the outcome of the Social Summit and to identify new and further initiatives for social development.

The GA held its twenty-fourth special session, entitled �World Summit for Social Development and beyond: achieving social development for all in a globalizing world�, in Geneva from 26 to 30 June 2000.

Agreement was reached on a wide array of initiatives to reduce poverty and spur job growth in the global economy.

Reducing poverty, promoting job growth, and ensuring the participation of all people in the decision-making process were the main objectives of the agreement.

To achieve these goals, countries endorsed actions to ensure improved education and health, including in times of financial crisis.

The General Assembly adopted an outcome document entitled �Further initiatives for social development� consisting of a political declaration reaffirming the Copenhagen Declaration on Social Development and Programme of Action of the World Summit for Social Development; a review and assessment of the implementation of the outcome of the Summit; and proposals for further initiatives for social development. More
MDG 1 aims at eradicating extreme poverty and hunger.

Its three targets respectively read:

halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than $1.25 a day (1.A),

achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people (1.B),

halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger (1.C). More
The First United Nations Decade for Eradication of Poverty was declared for the period 1997-2006 by the UN General Assembly at the end of 1995.

As theme for the Decade, the GA established at the end of 1996 the following: "Eradicating poverty is an ethical, social, political and economic imperative of humankind." More
A GA Special Session (UNGASS-19) was held in June 1997 in order to review and assess progress undergone on Agenda 21. With Resolution A/RES/S-19/2 delegates agreed on the adoption of the Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21.

The Programme appraised progress since the UNCED, examined implementation and defined the CSD�s work programme for the period 1998-2002.

For the CSD�s subsequent four sessions, poverty and consumption and production patterns were identified as dominant issues for each year by the work programme.

Delegates also agreed on the sectoral, cross-sectoral and economic sector/major group themes, endorsed the IPF�s outcome and recommended a continuation of the intergovernmental policy dialogue on forests.

Subsequently, the Intergovernmental Forum on Forest (IFF) was established by ECOSOC under the CSD. More
The Copenhagen Declaration was adopted at the end of the World Summit for Social Development (WSSD), held in March 1995 in Copenhagen.

Being the largest gathering of world leaders at that time, this event represented a crucial milestone and pledged to make the conquest of poverty, the goal of full employment and the fostering of stable, safe and just societies overriding objectives of development.

Chapter 2 is entirely devoted to eradication of poverty with a particular attention to the strategies to be adopted to achieve concrete results in this matter, to improve access to productive resources and infrastructure, meet the basic human needs of all and to enhance social protection and reduce vulnerability. More
Chapter 3 of the Agenda describes poverty as "a complex multidimensional problem with origins in both the national and international domains".

The Agenda notes that no uniform solution can be found for global application and identifies country-specific programmes to tackle poverty and international efforts supporting national efforts, as well as the parallel process of creating a supportive international environment as crucial tools for a solution to this problem. More
Eradicating poverty in all its forms and dimensions, including extreme poverty, is the greatest global challenge and an indispensable requirement for sustainable development. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development resolves to free the human race from the tyranny of poverty and to heal and secure our planet. The first Sustainable Development Goal aims to �End poverty in all its forms everywhere�. Its seven associated targets aims, among others, to eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere, reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty, and implement nationally appropriate social protection systems and measures for all, including floors, and by 2030 achieve substantial coverage of the poor and the vulnerable As recalled by the foreword of the 2015 Millennium Development Goals Report, at the Millennium Summit in September 2000, 189 countries unanimously adopted the Millennium Declaration, pledging to �spare no effort to free our fellow men, women and children from the abject and dehumanizing conditions of extreme poverty�. This commitment was translated into an inspiring framework of eight goals and, then, into wide-ranging practical steps that have enabled people across the world to improve their lives and their future prospects. The MDGs helped to lift more than one billion people out of extreme poverty, to make inroads against hunger, to enable more girls to attend school than ever before and to protect our planet. Nevertheless, in spite of all the remarkable gains, inequalities have persisted and progress has been uneven. Therefore, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its set of Sustainable Development Goals have been committed, as stated in the Declaration of the Agenda, �to build upon the achievements of the Millennium Development Goals and seek to address their unfinished business�. From Agenda 21 to Future We Want In "The Future We Want", the outcome document of Rio+20, Member States emphasized the need to accord the highest priority to poverty eradication within the United Nations development agenda, addressing the root causes and challenges of poverty through integrated, coordinated and coherent strategies at all level. In the context of the multi-year programme of work adopted by the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) after the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD), poverty eradication appears as an "overriding issue" on the agenda of the CSD each year. Poverty eradication is addressed in Chapter II of the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (2002), which stressed that eradicating poverty is the greatest global challenge facing the world today and an indispensable requirement for sustainable development, particularly for developing countries. Priority actions on poverty eradication include:
  • improving access to sustainable livelihoods, entrepreneurial opportunities and productive resources;
  • providing universal access to basic social services;
  • progressively developing social protection systems to support those who cannot support themselves;
  • empowering people living in poverty and their organizations;
  • addressing the disproportionate impact of poverty on women;
  • working with interested donors and recipients to allocate increased shares of ODA to poverty eradication; and
  • intensifying international cooperation for poverty eradication.
The General Assembly, in its 1997 Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21 (paragraph 27) decided that poverty eradication should be an overriding theme of sustainable development for the coming years. It is one of the fundamental goals of the international community and of the entire United Nations system. "Combating poverty" is the topic of Chapter 3 of Agenda 21. It is also in commitment 2 of the Copenhagen Declaration on Social Development. Agenda 21 emphasized that poverty is a complex multidimensional problem with origins in both the national and international domains. No uniform solution can be found for global application. Rather, country-specific programmes to tackle poverty and international efforts supporting national efforts, as well as the parallel process of creating a supportive international environment, are crucial for a solution to this problem. The years following the 1992 Rio Conference have witnessed an increase in the number of people living in absolute poverty, particularly in developing countries. The enormity and complexity of the poverty issue could endanger the social fabric, undermine economic development and the environment, and threaten political stability in many countries.
Division for Sustainable Development, UN-DESA

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