Japan is an example of a country that has implemented a Pro Natal Policy. Japan has a low birth rate and a low death rate, placing them in the fifth stage of the transition model. Japanese women have an average of 1.34 children, one of the lowest rates in the world and below the 2.8 needed to replenish the population. Japans population is ageing and there is a very high life expectancy. If the birth rate continues to stay low, the population could start to decline so the government have introduced pro natal laws in which parents can receive:
- 8 weeks paid leave from work
- Shorter working hours
- A maximum of 24 hours overtime a month
- Economic incentives: e.g the toy company Bandai is offering employees 1 million yen to have a third child and the same for each subsequent child
- Child allowances
- Larger families can get discounts from certain shops
- More time off to have a child
The policy hasn't been successful; birth rates only rose by 0.14% between 2005 and 2013.
Case study: pro-natalist policy in France
Many areas of Europe have a low fertility rate [fertility rate: The average number of babies born to each woman. ] because of the following reasons:
- education - people are more aware of the availability of contraception and consequences an unplanned pregnancy can have on their career
- women in careers - Women may choose to follow their career choice rather than start a family while young
- later marriages
- state benefits - couples no longer need children to help care for them when older
France was a country with concerns that professional women were choosing not to have children. The government were worried that the population was not going to replace itself over time.
The policies that were put in place to encourage three-children families were:
- a cash incentive of £675 monthly (nearly the minimum wage) for a mother to stay off work for one year following the birth of her third child
- the 'carte famille nombreuse' (large family card), giving large reductions on train fares
- income tax based on the more children the less tax to pay
- three years paid parental leave, which can be used by mothers or fathers
- government subsidised daycare for children under the age of three, and full time school places for over threes paid for by the government
This has resulted in mothers considering having children and remaining in work. The fertility rate [fertility rate: The average number of babies born to each woman. ] in France is one of Europe's highest.
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