Bibliography Prefix Suffix And Root

This is a list of roots, suffixes, and prefixes used in medical terminology, their meanings, and their etymology. Most of them are combining forms in New Latin and hence international scientific vocabulary. There are a few general rules about how they combine. First, prefixes and suffixes, most of which are derived from ancient Greek or classical Latin, have a droppable -o-. As a general rule, this -o- almost always acts as a joint-stem to connect two consonantal roots, e.g. arthr- + -o- + logy = arthrology. But generally, the -o- is dropped when connecting to a vowel-stem; e.g. arthr- + itis = arthritis, instead of *arthr-o-itis. Second, medical roots generally go together according to language, i.e., Greek prefixes occur with Greek suffixes and Latin prefixes with Latin suffixes. Although international scientific vocabulary is not stringent about segregating combining forms of different languages, it is advisable when coining new words not to mix different lingual roots.

Prefixes and suffixes[edit]

The following is an alphabetical list of medical prefixes and suffixes, along with their meanings, origin, and English examples.


AffixMeaningOrigin language and etymologyExample(s)
a-, an-not, withoutAncient Greek ἀ-/ἀν- (a-/an-), not, withoutanalgesic, apathy
ab-from; away fromLatinabduction
abdomin-Of or relating to the abdomenLatin abdōmen, abdomen, fat around the bellyabdomen, abdominal
-acpertaining toGreek -ακός (-akos)cardiac, hydrophobiac
acanth-thorn or spineAncient Greek ἄκανθα (ákantha), thornacanthion, acanthocyte, acanthoma, acanthulus
acou-[1]Of or relating to hearingGreek ἀκούειν (akoúein), ἀκουστικός (akoustikós), of or for hearingacoumeter, acoustician, hyperacusis
acr-extremity, topmostGreek ἄκρον (akron), highest or farthest pointacrocrany, acromegaly, acroosteolysis, acroposthia
-acusishearingGreek ἀκουστικός (akoustikós), of or for hearingparacusis
-adtoward, in the direction ofdorsad
ad-at, increase, on, towardLatinadduction
aden-Of or relating to a glandAncient Greek ἀδήν, ἀδέν- (adēn, aden-), an acorn; a glandadenocarcinoma, adenology, adenotome, adenotyphus
adip-Of or relating to fat or fatty tissueLatin (adeps, adip-), fatAdipocyte
adren-Of or relating to adrenal glandsLatinadrenal artery
-emia (BrE)blood conditionGreek ἀναιμία, without bloodAnemia
aer(o)-air, gasGreek ἀήρ, ἀέροςAerosinusitis
aesthesi- (BrE)sensationGreek αἴσθησιςAnesthesia
-alpertaining toLatin -alisabdominal, femoral
alb-Denoting a white or pale colorLatin albus, whiteAlbino
alge(si)-painGreek ἄλγοςAnalgesic
-algia, alg(i)o-painGreekMyalgia
all-Denoting something as different, or as an additionAncient Greek ἄλλος (allos), another, otherAlloantigen, allopathy
ambi-Denoting something as positioned on both sides; describing both of twoLatin (ambi-, ambo), both, on both sidesAmbidextrous
amni-Pertaining to the membranous fetal sac (amnion)Greek ἄμνιονAmniocentesis
amph(i)-,on both sidesGreek ἀμφί (amphi)Amphicrania, amphismela, amphomycin
amylo-starchy, carbohydrate-relatedLatin amylum (starch)Amylase, amylophagia
an-not, withoutGreekAnalgesia
ana-back, again, upGreekAnaplasia
andr-pertaining to a manGreek ἀνήρ, ἀνδρ-Android, andrology, androgen
angi-blood vesselGreek ἀγγεῖονangiogram, angioplasty
aniso-Describing something as unequalAncient Greek ἄνῑσος (anīsos), unequalAnisocytosis, anisotropic
ankyl-, ancyl-Denoting something as crooked or bentAncient Greek ἀγκύλος (ankýlos), crooked, curvedAnkylosis
ante-Describing something as positioned in front of another thingLatin (āntē), before, in front ofantepartum
anti-Describing something as 'against' or 'opposed to' anotherAncient Greek αντι (anti), againstAntibody, antipsychotic
apo-away, separated from, derived fromAncient Greek ἀπόApoptosis
arch-first, primitiveAncient Greekarchinephron
arsen(o)-Of or pertaining to a male; masculineGreek (arsein)arsenoblast
arteri(o)-Of or pertaining to an arteryAncient Greek ἀρτηρία (artēría), a wind-pipe, artery (used distinctly versus a vein)Arteriole, artery
arthr-Of or pertaining to the joints, limbsAncient Greek ἄρθρον (árthron), a joint, limbArthritis
articul-jointLatin articulusArticulation
-arypertaining toLatin -ariusbiliary tract, coronary
-aseenzymeGreek διάστασις, divisionLactase
-astheniaweaknessGreek, ἀσθένειαMyasthenia gravis
atel(o)-imperfect or incomplete developmentatelocardia
ather-fatty deposit, soft gruel-like depositἀθάρη (athárē)Atherosclerosis
atri-an atrium (esp. heart atrium)Latinatrioventricular
aur-Of or pertaining to the earLatin (auris), the earAural
aut-selfGreek αὐτο-Autoimmune
aux(o)-increase; growthAuxocardia: enlargement of the heart, auxology
axill-Of or pertaining to the armpit (uncommon as a prefix)Latin (axilla), armpitAxilla
azo(to)-nitrogenous compoundazothermia: raised temperature due to nitrogenous substances in blood


AffixMeaningOrigin language and etymologyExample(s)
bacteri-Pertaining to bacteriaLatin ("bacterium"); Greek βακτήριον ("baktḗrion"), “small staff”bacteriophage, bactericide
balan-Of the glans penis or glans clitoridisGreek βάλανος (bálanos), acorn, glansbalanitis
bas-Of or pertaining to baseGreek βάσις (básis), "foundation", "base"basolateral
bi-twice, doubleLatinBinary
bio-lifeAncient Greek βίος (bíos)Biology
blast-germ or budGreek βλαστός (blastós)Blastomere
blephar(o)-Of or pertaining to the eyelidAncient Greek βλέφαρον (blépharon), eyelidBlepharoplasty
brachi(o)-Of or relating to the armLatin (bracchium), from Ancient Greek βραχίων (brachiōn), armBrachium of inferior colliculus
brachy-Indicating 'short' or less commonly 'little'Ancient Greek βραχύς (brachys), short, little, shallowbrachycephalic
brady-'slow'Ancient Greek βραδύς (bradys), slowBradycardia
bronch(i)-of or relating to the bronchusLatin (bronchus); Ancient Greek βρόγχος (brónkhos), windpipeBronchitis, bronchiolitis obliterans
bucc(o)-Of or pertaining to the cheekLatin (bucca), cheekBuccolabial
burs(o)-bursa (fluid sac between the bones)Latin (bursa), purse; Ancient Greek βύρσα (búrsa), hide, wine-skinBursa, bursitis


AffixMeaningOrigin language and etymologyExample(s)
capill-Of or pertaining to hairLatin (capillus), hairCapillus
capit-Pertaining to the head (as a whole)Latin (caput, capit-), the headcapitation
carcin-cancerGreek καρκίνος (karkinos), crabcarcinoma
cardi-Of or pertaining to the heartAncient Greek καρδία (kardía), heartcardiology
carp-Of or pertaining to the wristLatin (carpus) < Ancient Greek καρπός (karpós), wrist; NOTE: This root should not be confused with the mirror root carp(o)- meaning fruit.carpopedal spasm
cata-down, underGreek κατά (kata)Cataract, catabolism
-celepouching, herniaAncient Greek κήλη (kēlē)Hydrocele, Varicocele
-centesissurgical puncture for aspirationAncient Greek κέντησις (kentēsis)amniocentesis
cephal(o)-Of or pertaining to the head (as a whole)Ancient Greek κεφαλή (képhalē), the headcephalalgy, hydrocephalus
cerat(o)-Of or pertaining to the cornu; a hornAncient Greek κέρας, κερατ- (kéras, kerat-), a hornCeratoid
cerebell(o)-Of or pertaining to the cerebellumLatin (cerebellum), little brainCerebellum
cerebr-Of or pertaining to the brainLatin (cerebrum), brainCerebrology
cervic-Of or pertaining to the neck, the cervixLatin (cervix, cervīc-), neck, cervixcervicodorsal
cheil-Of or pertaining to the lipsLatin (cheilitis)angular cheilitis
chem-chemistry, drugGreek χημείαchemotherapy
chir-, cheir-Of or pertaining to the handAncient Greek χείρ, χειρο- (cheir, cheiro-), handchiropractor
chlor-Denoting a green colorAncient Greek χλωρός (chlōros), green, yellow-greenchlorophyll
chol(e)-Of or pertaining to bileAncient Greek χολή (cholē), bileCholaemia (UK)/ Cholemia (US), Cholecystitis
cholecyst(o)-Of or pertaining to the gallbladderAncient Greek χοληκύστις (cholēkýstis), gallbladder < χολή (cholē), bile, gall + κύστις (kýstis), bladderCholecystectomy
chondr(i)o-cartilage, gristle, granule, granularAncient Greek χονδρός (chondros)Chondrocalcinosis
chrom(ato)-colorAncient Greek χρῶμα (chrōma)Hemochromatosis
-cidal, -cidekilling, destroyingLatinbacteriocidal
cili-Of or pertaining to the cilia, the eyelashes; eyelidsLatin (cilium), eyelash; eyelidCiliary
circum-Denoting something as 'around' anotherLatin (circum), aroundcircumcision
cis-on this sideLatin ciscisgender
clastbreakGreek κλαστός "broken"osteoclast
clostr-spindleGreek κλωστήρ (klōstēr)Clostridium
co-with, together, in associationLatincoenzymes
col-, colo-, colono-colonκόλον (kólon)Colonoscopy
colp(o)-Of or pertaining to the vaginaAncient Greek κόλπος (kólpos), bosom, womb; hollow, depthColposcopy
com-with, togetherLatin cum
cor-with, togetherLatincorrective
cor-Of or pertaining to eye's pupilAncient Greek κόρη (kórē), girl, doll; pupil of the eyeCorectomy
cord-Of or pertaining to the heart (uncommon as a prefix)Latin (cor, cordi-), "heart"Commotio cordis
cornu-Applied to processes and parts of the body describing them likened or similar to hornsLatin cornū, "horn"Greater cornu
coron(o)-pertaining to heartLatin corōnacoronary heart disease
cortic(o)Cortex, or outer regionLatin cortex, "Bark of a tree"Corticosteriod
cost-Of or pertaining to the ribsLatin (costa), "rib"Costochondral
cox-Of or relating to the hip, haunch, or hip-jointLatin (coxa), hipCoxopodite
crani(o)-Belonging or relating to the craniumLatin (cranium) < Ancient Greek κρᾱνίον (krānion), the cranium, skull, bones enclosing the brainCraniology
-crine, crin(o)to secreteεκκρίνει ecrineEndocrine
cry(o)-coldGreek κρύοςCryoablation
cutane-skinLatin cutisSubcutaneous
cyan(o)-Denotes a blue colorAncient Greek κύανος, κυάνεος (kýanos, kyáneos), blueCyanopsia
cycl-circle, cycleGreek κύκλος (kuklos)Cyclosis
cyph(o)-Denotes something as bent (uncommon as a prefix)Ancient Greek κυφός (kȳphós), bent, hunchbackCyphosis
cyst(o)-, cyst(i)-Of or pertaining to the urinary bladderAncient Greek κύστις κύστις (kýstis); bladder, cystCystotomy
cyt(o)-, -cytecellGreek κύτοςCytokine, leukocyte


AffixMeaningOrigin language and etymologyExample(s)
dacry(o)-Of or pertaining to tearsGreek δάκρυ, tearDacryoadenitis, dacryocystitis
-dactyl(o)-Of or pertaining to a finger, toeAncient Greek δάκτυλος (dáktylos), finger, toedactylology, polydactyly
de-from, down, or away fromLatin de-dehydrate
dent-Of or pertaining to teethLatin (dens, dentis), toothDentist
dermat(o)-, derm(o)-Of or pertaining to the skinAncient Greek δέρμα, δέρματος (dérma, dérmat-), skin, human skinDermatology, epidermis, hypodermic, xeroderma
-desisbindingGreek δέσις (désis)arthrodesis
dextr(o)-right, on the right sideLatin dexterDextrocardia
di-twoGreek δι-Diplopia
di-apart, separationLatindilation, distal
dia-through, during, acrossAncient Greek διά (diá), through, during, acrossdialysis
dif-apart, separationLatindifferent
digit-Of or pertaining to the finger [rare as a root]Latin (digitus), finger, toeDigit
diplo-twofoldGreek διπλόος (diplóos)diploid, diplosis
-dipsiasuffix meaning "(condition of) thirst"'Greek δίψα (dípsa)dipsomania, hydroadipsia, oligodipsia, polydipsia
dis-separation, taking apartLatin dis-Dissection
dors(o)-, dors(i)-Of or pertaining to the backLatin (dorsum), backdorsal, dorsocephalad
dromo-running, conduction, courseGreek δρόμος (drómos)Dromotropic, syndrome
duodeno-duodenum, twelve: upper part of the small intestine (twelve inches long on average), connects to the stomachLatin duodeniDuodenal atresia
dynam(o)-force, energy, powerGreek δύναμις (dúnamis)Hand strength dynamometer
dys-bad, difficult, defective, abnormalGreek δυσ- (dus-)dysentery, dysphagia, dysphasia


AffixMeaningOrigin language and etymologyExample(s)
-ealpertaining toLatinadenohypophyseal, corneal, esophageal, perineal
ec-out, awayGreek ἐκ- (ek-)Ectopia, ectopic pregnancy
ect(o)-outer, outsideGreek ἐκτός (ektós)Ectoblast, ectoderm
-ectasia, -ectasisexpansion, dilationAncient Greek ἔκτασις (éktasis)Bronchiectasis, telangiectasia
-ectomyDenotes a surgical operation or removal of a body part. Resection, excisionAncient Greek ἐκτομή (ektomḗ), excisionMastectomy
-emesisvomiting conditionGreek ἕμεσις (émesis)Hematemesis
-emiablood condition (Am Engl)Ancient Greek αἷμα, bloodAnemia
encephal(o)-Of or pertaining to the brain. Also see Cerebro.Ancient Greek ἐγκέφαλος (enképhalos), the brainEncephalogram
endo-Denotes something as 'inside' or 'within'ἐνδο- (endo-), inside, internalEndocrinology, endospore
eosin(o)-RedAncient Greek Eos, the Greek word for 'dawn' and the name of the Greek goddess of the dawn.Eosinophil granulocyte
enter(o)-Of or pertaining to the intestineAncient Greek ἔντερον (énteron), intestineGastroenterology
epi-on, uponAncient Greek ἐπι- (epi-), before, upon, on, outside, outside ofEpicardium, epidermis, epidural, episclera, epistaxis
episi(o)-Of or pertaining to the pubic region, the loinsAncient Greek ἐπίσιον- (epísion), the pubic area, loins; vulvaEpisiotomy
erythr(o)-Denotes a red colorAncient Greek ἐρυθρός (erythrós), redErythrocyte
-esophageal, -esophago-gullet (AmE)Greek οἰσοφάγος (oisophágos)Esophagus
esthesio-sensation (AmE)Greek αἴσθησις (aisthēsis)Esthesioneuroblastoma, esthesia
eu-true, good, well, newεὖ ()Eukaryote
ex-out of, away fromLatinExcision
exo-Denotes something as 'outside' anotherAncient Greek ἐξω- (exo-), outside of, externalExophthalmos, exoskeleton
extra-outsideLatinExtradural hematoma


AffixMeaningOrigin language and etymologyExample(s)
faci-Of or pertaining to the faceLatin faciēs, the face, countenanceFacioplegic
fibr-fiberLatin fibra, fiber, filament, entrails[2]fibril, fibrin, fibrinous pericarditis, fibroblast
fil-fine, hair-likeLatin (filum), threadFilament, filum terminale
foramenhole, opening, or aperature, particularly in boneLatinForamen magnum
-formUsed to form adjectives indicating 'having the form of'Latin (forma), form, shapecruciform, cuneiform, falciform
fore-before or aheadforegut
fossaA hollow or depressed area; trench or channelLatin (fossa), ditch, pitfossa ovalis
front-Of or pertaining to the foreheadLatin (frōns, front-), the foreheadfrontonasal


AffixMeaningOrigin language and etymologyExample(s)
galact(o)-milkGreek γάλα, γαλακτ-Galactorrhea
gastr(o)-Of or pertaining to the stomachAncient Greek γαστήρ (gastēr), γαστρ-, stomach, bellyGastric bypass
-gen(1) Denotes the sense 'born in, from' (2) Denotes the sense 'of a certain kind'Ancient Greek -γενής (-genēs), from γεν-νάειν (gen-náein), to be born(1) Endogen; (2) Heterogenous
-genicFormative, pertaining to producingGreekCardiogenic shock
genu-Of or pertaining to the kneeLatin (genū), kneeGenu valgum
-geusiaTasteAncient Greek γεῦσις (geusis)Ageusia, dysgeusia, hypergeusia, hypogeusia, parageusia
gingiv-Of or pertaining to the gumsLatin gingīva, gumGingivitis
glauc(o)-Denoting a grey or bluish-grey colourAncient Greek γλαυκός (glaukos), grey, bluish-greyGlaucoma
gloss(o)-, glott(o)-Of or pertaining to the tongueAncient Greek γλῶσσα, γλῶττα (glōssa, glōtta), tongueGlossology
gluco-sweetGreek γλυκός, sweetGlucocorticoid
glyc(o)-sugarAncient GreekGlycolysis
gnath(o)-Of or pertaining to the jawAncient Greek γνάθος (gnáthos), jawGnathodynamometer
-gnosisknowledgeGreekdiagnosis, prognosis
gon(o)-seed, semen; also, reproductiveAncient Greek γόνοςGonorrhea
-gram, -grammerecord or pictureGreek γράμμα (gramma)Angiogram
-graphinstrument used to record data or pictureAncient Greek -γραφία (-graphía), written, drawn, graphic interpretationElectrocardiograph
-graphyprocess of recordingAncient GreekAngiography
gyno-, gynaeco- (BrE), gyneco- (AmE)womanGreek γυνή, γυναικ-Gynecomastia


AffixMeaningOrigin language and etymologyExample(s)
halluc-to wander in mindClassical Latin to wander in mindHallucinosis
hemat-, haemato- (haem-, hem-)Of or pertaining to bloodLatin (hæma) < Ancient Greek αἵμα, αἱματ- (haima, haimat-), bloodHematology, older form Haematology
hema- or hemo-blood (AmE)GreekHemal, Hemoglobin
hemangi or hemangio-blood vesselsHemangioma
hemi-one-halfAncient Greek ἡμι- (hēmi-), "half"Cerebral hemisphere
hepat- (hepatic-)Of or pertaining to the liverAncient Greek ἥπαρ, ἡπατο- (hēpar, hēpato-), the liverHepatology, Hepatitis
heter(o)-Denotes something as 'the other' (of two), as an addition, or differentAncient Greek ἕτερος (héteros), the other (of two), another; differentHeterogeneous
hidr(o)-sweatGreek ἱδρωτ-Hyperhidrosis
hist(o)-, histio-tissueGreek ἱστόςHistology
home(o)-similarAncient Greek ὅμοιος (homoios)Homeopathy
hom(o)-Denotes something as 'the same' as another or commonAncient Greek ὁμο- (homo-), the same, commonHomosexuality
humer(o)-Of or pertaining to the shoulder (or [rarely] the upper arm)Latin (umerus), shoulderHumerus
hydr(o)-waterGreek ὕδωρHydrophobe
hyper-Denotes something as 'extreme' or 'beyond normal'Ancient Greek ὑπέρ (hyper), over, above; beyond, to the extremeHypertension
hyp(o)-Denotes something as 'below normal'Ancient Greek ὑπ(ο)- (hypo-), below, underHypovolemia,
hyster(o)-Of or pertaining to the womb, the uterusAncient Greek ὑστέρα (hystéra), wombHysterectomy, Hysteria


AffixMeaningOrigin language and etymologyExample(s)
-i-asiscondition, formation, or presence ofGreek -ίασιςMydriasis
iatr(o)-Of or pertaining to medicine, or a physician (uncommon as a prefix; common as a suffix, see -iatry)Ancient Greek ἰᾱτρός (iātrós), healer, physicianIatrochemistry
-iatryDenotes a field in medicine of a certain body componentAncient Greek ἰᾱτρός (iātrós), healer, physicianPodiatry, psychiatry
-icpertaining toGreek -ικός (-ikos)Hepatic artery
-iclesmallLatinOvarian follicle
-icsorganized knowledge, treatmentLatin -ica < Greek < -ικάObstetrics
idio-self, one's ownGreek ἴδιος, idios, "one's own"Idiopathic
ileo-ileumGreek ἰλεόςIleocecal valve
infra-belowLatinInfrahyoid muscles
inter-between, amongLatinInterarticular ligament
irid(o)-irisGreek ἴριςIridectomy
isch-restrictionGreek ἴσχωIschemia
ischio-Of or pertaining to the ischium, the hip-jointAncient Greek ἰσχιόν (ischión), hip-joint, ischiumIschioanal fossa
-ismcondition, diseaseDwarfism
-ismusspasm, contractionGreek -ισμόςHemiballismus
iso-Denoting something as being 'equal'Ancient Greek ἴσος (ísos), equalIsotonic
-istone who specializes inGreek -ιστής (-istes)Pathologist
-itethe nature of, resemblingGreek -ίτηςHermaphrodite
-iumstructure, tissuepericardium


AffixMeaningOrigin language and etymologyExample(s)
juxta (iuxta)Near to, alongside or next toLatinJuxtaglomerular apparatus



AffixMeaningOrigin language and etymologyExample(s)
labi-Of or pertaining to the lipLatin (labium), liplabiodental
lacrim(o)-tearLatinLacrimal canaliculi
lact(i)-, lact(o)milkLatinLactation
lapar(o)-Of or pertaining to the abdominal wall, flankAncient Greek λαπάρᾱ (lapárā), flankLaparotomy
laryng(o)-Of or pertaining to the larynx, the lower throat cavity where the voice box isAncient Greek λάρυγξ, λαρυγγ- (lárynx, laryng-), throat, gulletLarynx
latero-lateralLatinLateral pectoral nerve
lei(o)-smoothGreek λεῖοςLeiomyoma
-lepsis, -lepsyattack, seizureGreek λῆψιςEpilepsy, narcolepsy
lept(o)-light, slenderGreek λεπτός (leptos)Leptomeningeal
leuc(o)-, leuk(o)-Denoting a white colorAncient Greek λευκός (leukos), white, brightLeukocyte
lingu(a)-, lingu(o)-Of or pertaining to the tongueLatin (lingua), tongueLinguistics
lip(o)-fatGreek λίπος (lipos)Liposuction
liss(os)-smoothGreek Λισσός (lissos)Lissencephaly
lith(o)-stone, calculusGreek λίθος (lithos)Lithotripsy
log(o)-speechGreek λόγος (logos)dialog, catalog, logos
-logistDenotes someone who studies a certain field (the field of _____-logy); a specialist; one who treatsAncient Greek λογιστής (logistēs), studier, practitionerOncologist, pathologist
-logyDenotes the academic study or practice of a certain field; the study ofAncient Greek λόγoς (logos) studyhematology, urology
lumb(o)-, lumb(a)-Of or relating to the part of the trunk between the lowest ribs and the pelvis.Latin (lumbus or lumbaris) loinLumbar vertebrae
lymph(o)-lymphLatin lympha - waterLymphedema
lys(o)-, -lyticdissolutionGreekLysosome
-lysisDestruction, separationGreek λύσιςParalysis


AffixMeaningOrigin language and etymologyExample(s)
macr(o)-large, longGreek μακρόςMacrophage
-malaciasofteningGreek μαλακίαOsteomalacia
mamm(o)-Of or pertaining to the breastLatin (mamma), breast; udderMammogram
mammill(o)-Of or pertaining to the nippleLatin mammilla, nippleMammillaplasty, Mammillitis
manu-Of or pertaining to the handLatin (manus), handManufacture
mast(o)-Of or pertaining to the breastAncient Greek μαστός (mastós), breast, women's breast; man's pectoral muscleMastectomy
meg(a)-, megal(o)-, -megalyenlargement, millionGreek μέγαςSplenomegaly, Megameter
melan(o)-black colorAncient Greek μέλας, μελανο- (melas, melano-), black; darkMelanin
melosextremityAncient Greek μέλοςErythromelalgia
mening(o)-membraneGreek μῆνιγξ, μηνιγγ-Meningitis
men-month, menstrual cycleAncient Greek μήν (mḗn), monthMenopause, Menorrhagia
mer-partGreek μέρος (meros), partMerocrine, Meroblastic
mes-middleAncient Greek μέσος (mesos), "middle"Mesoderm
met, meta-after, beside, beyond or changeGreek μετάMetacarpal, Metacarpus, Metacromion, Metanephros, Metatheria
-meterinstrument used to measure or countGreek μέτρονSphygmomanometer
-metryprocess of measuringGreek -μετρίαOptometry
metr-Pertaining to conditions or instruments of the uterusAncient Greek μήτρᾱ (mētrā), womb, uterusMetrorrhagia
micr-denoting something as small, or relating to smallness, millionthAncient Greek μικρός (mikros), smallMicroscope
milli-thousandthLatin mille, thousandMilliliter
mon-singleGreek μονός (monos)Infectious Mononucleosis
morph-form, shapeGreek μορφή (morphē)Morphology
muscul(o)-muscleLatinMusculoskeletal system
my(o)-Of or relating to muscleAncient Greek μῦς, μυ- (mys, my-), muscle; mouse; musselMyoblast
myc(o)-fungusGreek μύκης, μυκητ-Onychomycosis
myel(o)-Of or relating to bone marrow or spinal cordAncient Greek μυελόν (myelon), marrow; bone-marrowMyeloblast
myl(o)-Of or relating to molar teeth or lower jawGreek (myle)Mylohyoid nerve
myri-ten thousandAncient Greek μύριοι (mýrioi), myriadMyriad
myring(o)-eardrumLatin myringaMyringotomy
myx(o)-mucusGreek μύξαMyxoma


AffixMeaningOrigin language and etymologyExample(s)
narc(o)-numb, sleepGreek νάρκηnarcolepsy
nas(o)-Of or pertaining to the noseLatin (nāsum), nosenasal
necr(o)-deathGreek νεκρόςNecrosis, necrotizing fasciitis
neo-newGreek νέοςNeoplasm
nephr(o)-Of or pertaining to the kidneyAncient Greek νεφρός (nephrós), kidneyNephrology
nerv-Of or pertaining to nerves and the nervous system[Uncommon as a root: neuro- mostly always used]Latin (nervus), tendon; nerve; Cognate with the Greek νευρον (neuron) (see below)Nerve, nervous system
neur(i)-, neur(o)-Of or pertaining to nerves and the nervous systemAncient Greek νεῦρον (neuron), tendon, sinew; nerveNeurofibromatosis
noci-pain, injury, hurtLatin (noceo)Nociception


AffixMeaningOrigin language and etymologyExample(s)
ocul(o)-Of or pertaining to the eyeLatin (oculus), the eyeOculist
odont(o)-Of or pertaining to teethAncient Greek ὀδούς, ὀδοντ- (odoús, odont-), toothorthodontist
odyn(o)-painGreek ὀδύνηstomatodynia
-oesophageal, oesophago- (BrE)gulletGreek οἰσοφάγοςoesophagus
-oidresemblance toGreek -οειδήςSarcoidosis
olesmall or littleLatin
olig(o)-Denoting something as 'having little, having few'Ancient Greek ὀλίγος (oligos), fewOligotrophy
om(o)-shoulderAncient Greek ὠμός (ōmos), shoulderOmoplate
-oma (singular), -omata (plural)tumor, mass, fluid collectionGreek -ωμαSarcoma, teratoma, Mesothelioma
omphal(o)-Of or pertaining to the navel, the umbilicusAncient Greek ὀμφαλός (omphalós), navel, belly-buttonOmphalotomy
onco-tumor, bulk, volumeGreek ὄγκοςOncology
onych(o)-Of or pertaining to the nail (of a finger or toe)Ancient Greek ὄνυξ, ὀνυχο- (ónyx, ónycho-), nail; claw; talonOnychophagy
oo-Of or pertaining to an (egg), a woman's egg, the ovumAncient Greek ᾠόν, ᾠο- (ōón, ōo-), egg, ovumOogenesis
oophor(o)-Of or pertaining to the woman's (ovary)Neoclassical Greek ᾠοφόρον (ōophóron), ovary, egg-bearingOophorectomy
ophthalm(o)-Of or pertaining to the (eye)Ancient Greek ὀφθαλμός (ophthalmós), the eyeOphthalmology
opistho-back, behind, rear[8]Greek roots, ὄπισθεν, opisthen meaning "behind"[9][better source needed][10]Opisthotonus
-opsyExamination or inspectionAncient Greek ὄψις (opsis), sightBiopsy, autopsy
optic(o)-Of or relating to chemical properties of the eyeMiddle French (optique) < Greek ὀπτικός (optikós); ώψ (opsi), vision. Cognate with Latin oculus, relating to the eyeOpticochemical, biopsy
or(o)-Of or pertaining to the mouthLatin (ōs, or-), mouthOral
-orone whodoctor
orchi(o)-, orchid(o)-, orch(o)-testisGreek ὀρχις (orkhis, orkhi-)Orchiectomy, orchidectomy
orth(o)-Denoting something as straight or correctAncient Greek ὀρθός (orthós), straight, correct, normalOrthodontist
-osisa condition, disease or increaseGreek -ωσιςHarlequin type ichthyosis, psychosis, osteoporosis
ossi-boneLatinPeripheral ossifying fibroma
ost(e)-, oste(o)-boneGreek ὀστέονOsteoporosis, Osteoarthritis
ot(o)-Of or pertaining to the earAncient Greek οὖς, ὠτ- (ous, ōt-), the earOtology
-ouspertaining toLatin -osusporous
ovari(o)-Of or pertaining to the ovariesLatin (ōvarium), ovaryOvariectomy
ovo-, ovi-, ov-Of or pertaining to the eggs, the ovumLatin (ōvum), egg, ovumOvogenesis
oxo-addition of oxygenGreek ὀξύς
oxy-sharp, acid, acute, oxygenGreek ὀξύς(oxus)Oxytocin, oxygenated, oxycodone


AffixMeaningOrigin language and etymologyExample(s)
pachy-thickGreek παχύςpachyderma
palpebr-Of or pertaining to the eyelid (uncommon as a root)Latin (palpebra), eyelidpalpebra
pan-, pant(o)-Denoting something as 'complete' or containing 'everything'; "all"Ancient Greek πᾶς, παν- (pas, pan-), all, everypanophobia, panopticon, pancytopenia (deficiency in 'ALL' blood cell types - erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes)[11]
papill-Of or pertaining to the nipple (of the chest/breast)Latin (papilla), nipple; diminutive of papula (see below)papillitis
papul(o)-Indicates papulosity, a small elevation or swelling in the skin, a pimple, swellingLatin (papula), pimple, pustle; a small elevation or swelling in the skinpapulation
para-alongside ofAncient Greek παρά (para)paracyesis
-paresisslight paralysisGreek πάρεσιςhemiparesis
parvo-smallLatin parvusParvovirus
path(o)-diseaseGreek πάθοςPathology
-pathyDenotes (with a negative sense) a disease, or disorderAncient Greek πάθος (pathos), suffering, accidentsociopathy, neuropathy
pauci-FewLatin paucusPauci-immune
pector-breast or chestLatin pectuspectoralgia, pectoriloquy, pectorophony
ped-, -ped-, -pesOf or pertaining to the foot; -footedLatin pēs, pēd-, footPedoscope
ped-, pedo-Of or pertaining to the child

English Language Roots

Quick Chart

Below you will see a chart of English language word roots that are common prefixes and suffixes to base words. (This list is similar to that which appeared previously on this site.)

This list is a small portion of our 2,000 word root database which you can search using our root search engine.

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Root, Prefix or SuffixMeaningExamples
a, ac, ad, af, ag, al, an, ap, as, atto, toward, near, in addition to, byaside, accompany, adjust, aggression, allocate, annihilate, affix, associate, attend, adverb
a-, an-not, withoutapolitical, atheist, anarchy, anonymous, apathy, aphasia, anemia
ab, absaway from, offabsolve, abrupt, absent
-able, -ibleAdjective: worth, abilitysolvable, incredible
acer, acid, acribitter, sour, sharpacerbic, acidity, acrid, acrimony
act, agdo, act, driveactive, react, agent, active, agitate
acusharpacute, acupuncture, accurate
-acy, -cyNoun: state or qualityprivacy, infancy, adequacy, intimacy, supremacy
-adeact, product, sweet drinkblockade, lemonade
aer, aeroair, atmosphere, aviationaerial, aerosol, aerodrome
ag, agi, ig, actdo, move, goagent, agenda, agitate, navigate, ambiguous, action
-ageNoun: activity, or result of actioncourage, suffrage, shrinkage, tonnage
agri, agropertaining to fields or soilagriculture, agroindustry
-alNoun: action, result of actionreferral, disavowal, disposal, festival
-al, -ial, -icalAdjective: quality, relationstructural, territorial, categorical
alb, albowhite, without pigmentalbino, albite
ali, allo, alterotheralias, alibi, alien, alloy, alter, alter ego, altruism
althigh, deepaltimeter, altitude
am, ami, amorlove, like, likingamorous, amiable, amicable, enamoured
ambulto walkambulatory, amble, ambulance, somnambulist
-anNoun: personartisan, guardian, historian, magician
ana, anoup, back, again, anewanode, anagram, anagenetic
-ance, -enceNoun: action, state, quality or processresistance, independence, extravagance, fraudulence
-ancy, -encyNoun: state, quality or capacityvacancy, agency, truancy, latency
andr, andromale, characteristics of menandrocentric, android
animmind, life, spirit, angeranimal, animate, animosity
ann, annu, enniyearlyannual, annual, annuity, anniversary, perrenial
-ant, -entNoun: an agent, something that performs the actiondisinfectant, dependent, fragrant
-ant, -ent, -ientAdjective: kind of agent, indicationimportant, dependent, convenient
antebeforeanterior, anteroom, antebellum, antedate, antecedent antediluvian
anthropmananthropology, misanthrope, philanthropy
anti, antagainst, oppositeantisocial, antiseptic, antithesis, antibody, antinomies, antifreeze, antipathy
anti, anticooldantique, antiquated, antiquity
apo, ap, aphaway from, detached, formedapology, apocalypse, aphagia
-ar, -aryAdjective: resembling, related tospectacular, unitary
archchief, first, rulearchangel, architect, archaic, monarchy, matriarchy, patriarchy, Archeozoic era
-ard, -artNoun: characterizedbraggart, drunkard, wizard
aster, astrstaraster, asterisk, asteroid, astronomy, astronaut
-ateNoun: state, office, fuctioncandidate, electorate, delegate
-ateVerb: cause to begraduate, ameliorate, amputate, colligate
-ateAdjective: kind of stateinviolate
-ationNoun: action, resulting statespecialization, aggravation, alternation
auc, aug, autto originate, to increaseaugment , author, augment, auction
aud, audi, aur, austo hear, listenaudience, audio, audible, auditorium, audiovisual, audition, auricular, ausculate
aug, aucincreaseaugur, augment, auction
aut, autoselfautomobile, automatic, automotive, autograph, autonomous, autoimmune
barweight, pressurebarometer
beon, around, over, about, excessively, make, cause, name, affectberate, bedeck, bespeak, belittle, beleaguer
belliwarrebellion, belligerent, casus belli, bellicose
benegood, well, gentlebenefactor, beneficial, benevolent, benediction, beneficiary, benefit
bi, binetwobiped, bifurcate, biweekly, bivalve, biannual
bibl, bibli, bibliobookbibliophile, bibliography, Bible
bio, bilifebiography, biology, biometricsm biome, biosphere
brevshortabbreviate, brevity, brief
cad, cap, cas, ceiv, cept, capt, cid, cipto take, to seize, to holdreceive, deceive, capable, capacious, captive, accident, capture, occasion, concept, intercept, forceps, except, reciprocate
cad, casto fallcadaver, cadence, cascade
calorheatcalorie, caloric, calorimeter
capit, captheaddecapitate, capital, captain, caption
carnfleshcarnivorous, incarnate, reincarnation, carnal
cat, cata, cathdown, withcatalogue, category, catheter
caus, cautburn, heatcaustic, cauldron, cauterize
cause, cuse, cuscause, motivebecause, excuse, accusation
ceas, ced, cede, ceed, cessto go, to yield, move, go, surrendersucceed, proceed, precede, recede, secession, exceed, succession
centhundredcentennial, century, centipede
centr, centricentereccentricity, centrifugal, concentric, eccentric
chromcolorchrome, chromosome, polychrome, chromatic
chrontimechronology, chronic, chronicle chronometer, anachronism, synchronize
cide, cis, ciseto kill, to cut, cut downfratricide, homicide, incision, incision, circumcision, scissors
circumaroundcircumnavigate, circumflex, circumstance, circumcision, circumference, circumorbital, circumlocution, circumvent, circumscribe, circulatory
citcall, startincite, citation, cite
civcitizencivic, civil, civilian, civilization
clam, claimcry outexclamation, clamor, proclamation, reclamation, acclaim
clinlean, benddecline, aclinic, inclination
clud, clus clausto close, shutinclude, exclude, clause, claustrophobia, enclose, exclusive, reclusive, conclude
co, cog, col, coll, con, com, corwith, togethercohesiveness, cognate, collaborate, convene, commitment, compress, contemporary, converge, compact, confluence, convenient, concatenate, conjoin, combine, correct
cogn, gnosto knowrecognize, cognizant, diagnose, agnostic, incognito, prognosis
com, confullycomplete, compel, conscious, condense, confess, confirm
contr, contra, counteragainst, oppositecontradict, counteract, contravene, contrary, counterspy, contrapuntal
cord, cor, cardiheartcordial, concord, discord, courage, encourage
corpbodycorporation, corporal punishment, corpse, corpulent, corpus luteum
cortcorrectescort, cortage
cosmuniverse, worldcosmos, microcosm, cosmopolitan, cosmonaut
cour, cur, curr, cursrun, courseoccur, excursion, discourse, courier, course
crat, cracyruleautocrat, aristocrat, theocracy, technocracy
cre, cresc, cret, creasegrowcreate, crescent, accretion, increase
creacreatecreature, recreation, creation
credbelievecreed, credo, credence, credit, credulous, incredulous, incredible
cresc, cret, crease, crurise, growcrescendo, concrete, increase, decrease, accrue
critseparate, choosecritical, criterion, hypocrite
cur, cursruncurrent, concurrent, concur, incur, recur, occur, courier, precursor, cursive
curacarecurator, curative, manicure
cycl, cyclowheel, circle, circularCyclops, unicycle, bicycle, cyclone, cyclic
de-from, down, away, to do the opposite, reverse, againstdetach, deploy, derange, decrease, deodorize, devoid, deflate, degenerate
dec, decaten, ten timesdecimal, decade, decalogue, decimate, decathlon
dec, dignsuitabledecent decorate dignity
dei, divGoddivinity, divine, deity, divination, deify
dem, demopeople, populace, populationdemocracy, demography, demagogue, epidemic
dent, donttoothdental, denture, orthodontist, periodontal
dermskin, coveringhypodermic, dermatology, epidermis, taxidermy
di-, dy-two, twice, doubledivide, diverge, diglycerides
diathrough, across, betweendiameter, diagonal, dialogue dialect, dialectic, diagnosis, diachronic
dic, dict, ditsay, speakdictation, dictionary, dictate, dictator, Dictaphone, edict, predict, verdict, contradict, benediction
dis, difnot, opposite of, reverse, separate, deprive of, awaydismiss, differ, disallow, disperse, dissuade, divide, disconnect, disproportion, disrespect, distemper, disarray
ditgivecredit, audit
doc, doctteach, provedocile, doctor, doctrine, document, dogma, indoctrinate
dominmaster, that which is under controldominate, dominion, predominant, domain
dongivedonate, condone
dormsleepdormant, dormitory
doxthought, opinion, praiseorthodox, heterodox, paradox, doxology
-dromerun, stepsyndrome, aerodrome, velodrome
duc, ductto lead, pullproduce, abduct, product, transducer, viaduct, aqueduct, induct, deduct, reduce, induce
durahard, lastingdurable, duration, endure
dynampowerdynamo, dynamic, dynamite, hydrodynamics
dys-bad, abnormal, difficult, impaired, unfavorabledysfunctional, dyslexia, dyspathy
e-not, missing, out, fully, away, computer network relatedemit, embed, eternal,ether, erase, email, e-tailer
ec-out of, outsideecho, eclipse, eclectic, ecesis, ecstasy, exzema
eco-household, environment, relating to ecology or economyecology, economize, ecospheres, ecomanagement
ecto-outside, externalectomorph, ectoderm, ectoplasm
-edVerb: past tensedressed, faded, patted, closed, introduced
-edAdjective: having the quality or characteristics ofwinged, moneyed, dogged, tiered
-enVerb: to cause to becomelengthen, moisten, sharpen
-enAdjective: materialgolden, woolen, silken
en-, em-put into, make, provide with, surround withenamor, embolden, enslave, empower, entangle
-ence, -encyNoun: action or process, quality or statereference, emergency, dependence, eminence, latency
end-inside, withinendorse, endocardial, endergonic, endoskeleton, endoscope, endogenous
epi-upon, close to, over, after, alteredepicenter, epicarp, epilogue, epigone, epidiorite
equi-equalequidistant, equilateral, equilibrium, equinox, equation, equator
-er, -ierAdjective: comparativebetter, brighter, sooner, hotter, happier
-er, -orNoun: person or thing that does somethingflyer, reporter, player, member, fryer, collector, concentrator
-er, -orVerb: actionponder, dishonor, clamor
ergwork, effectenergy, erg, allergy, ergometer, ergograph, ergophobia
-erycollective qualities, art, practice, trade, collection, state, conditionsnobbery, bakery, geenery, gallery, slavery
-es, -iesNoun: plural of most nouns ending in -ch, -s, -sh, -o and -z and some in -f and -ypasses, glasses, ladies, heroes
-es, -iesVerb: third person singular present indicative of verbs that end in -ch, -s, -sh, - and some in -yblesses, hushes, fizzes, defies
-essfemaleactress, goddess, poetess
-est, -iestAdjective or Adverb: superlativelatest, strongest, luckiest, lyingest
ev-, et-time, agemedieval, eternal
ex-out of, away from, lacking, formerexit, exhale, exclusive, exceed, explosion, ex-mayor
exter-, extra-, extro-outside of, beyondexternal, extrinsic, extraordinary, extrapolate, extraneous, extrovert
fa, fessspeakfable, fabulous, fame, famous, confess, profess
fac, fact, fec, fect, fic, fas, feado, makedifficult, fashion, feasible, feature, factory, fact, effect, manufacture, amplification, confection
fall, falsdeceivefallacy, falsify, fallacious
ferbear, carryferry, coniferous, fertile, defer, infer, refer, transfer
fic, feign, fain, fit, featshape, make, fashionfiction, faint, feign
fidbelief, faithconfide, diffident, fidelity
fid, fide, federfaith, trustconfidante, fidelity, confident, infidelity, infidel, federal, confederacy, semper fi
figshape, formfigurem, effigy, figure, figment
fila, filithreadfiligree, filament, filter, filet, filibuster
finend, ended, finishedfinal, finite, finish, confine, fine, refine, define, finale
fixrepair, attachfix, fixation, fixture, affix, prefix, suffix
flex, flectbendflex, reflex, flexible, flexor, inflexibility, reflect, deflect,circumflex
flictstrikeaffliction, conflict, inflict
flu, fluc, fluv, fluxflowinfluence, fluid, flue, flush, fluently, fluctuate, reflux, influx
-foldAdverb: in a manner of, marked byfourfold
for, forebeforeforecast, fortune, foresee
forc, fortstrength, strongeffort, fort, forte, fortifiable, fortify, forte, fortitude
formshape, resembleform, format, conform, formulate, perform, formal, formula
fract, frag, fraibreakfracture, infraction, fragile, fraction, refract, frail
fugefleesubterfuge, refuge, centrifuge
-fulNoun: an amount or quanity that fillsmouthful
-fulAdjective: having, giving, marked byfanciful
fusepourconfuse, transfuse
-fymake, form intofalsify, dandify
gammarriagebigamy, monogamy, polygamy
gastr, gastrostomachgastric, gastronomic, gastritis, gastropod
genbirth, race, producegenesis, genetics, eugenics, genealogy, generate, genetic, antigen, pathogen
geoearthgeometry, geography, geocentric, geology
germvital partgermination, germ, germane
gestcarry, bearcongest, gestation
gigabilliongigabyte, gigaflop
gloss, glottongueglossary, polyglot, epiglottis
glu, glolump, bond, glueglue, agglutinate, conglomerate
gorto gather, to bring togethercategory, categorize
grad, gress, greeto gather, to bring together, step, gograde, degree, progress, gradual, graduate, egress
graph, gram, grafwrite, written, drawgraph, graphic, autograph, photography, graphite, telegram, polygraph, grammar, biography, lithograph, graphic
gratpleasingcongratulate, gratuity, grateful, ingrate
gravheavy, weightygrave, gravity, aggravate, gravitate
gregherdgregarious, congregation, segregate, gregarian
hale, healmake whole, soundinhale, exhale, heal, healthy, healthiness
heliosunheliograph, heliotrope, heliocentric
hema, hemobloodhemorrhage, hemoglobin, hemophilia, hemostat
her, here, hesstickadhere, cohere, cohesion, inherent, hereditary, hesitate
heteroother, differentheterodox, heterogeneous, heterosexual, heterodyne
hex, ses, sexsixhexagon, hexameter, sestet, sextuplets
homosamehomogenize, homosexual, homonym, homophone
hum, humanearth, ground, manhumus, exhume, humane
hydr, hydra, hydrowaterdehydrate, hydrant, hydraulic, hydraulics, hydrogen, hydrophobia
hyperover, abovehyperactive, hypertensive, hyperbolic, hypersensitive, hyperventilate, hyperkinetic
hypnsleephypnosis, hypnotherapy
-iaNoun: names, diseasesphobia
-ian, anNoun: related to, one that ispedestrian, human
-iatryNoun: art of healingpsychiatry
-icAdjective: quality, relationgeneric
-ic, icsNoun: related to the arts and sciencesarithmetic, economics
-iceNoun: actmalice
-ifyVerb: causespecify
ignisfireignite, igneous, ignition
-ileAdjective: having the qualities ofprojectile
in, iminto, on, near, towardsinstead, import
in, im, il, irnotillegible, irresolute, inaction, inviolate, innocuous, intractable, innocent, impregnable, impossible, imposter
infrabeneathinfrared, infrastructure
-ingNoun: material made for, activity, result of an activityflooring, swimming, building
-ingVerb: present participledepicting
-ingAdjective: activitycohering
interbetween, amonginternational, intercept, interject, intermission, internal, intermittent,
intrawithin, during, between layers, underneathintramural, intranet, intranatal
introinto, within, inwardinteroffice, introvert, introspection, introduce
-ionNoun: condition or actionabduction
-ishAdjective: having the character ofnewish
-ismNoun: doctrine, belief, action or conductformalism
-istNoun: person or memberpodiatrist
-iteNoun: state or qualitygraphite
-ity, tyNoun: state or qualitylucidity, novelty
-iveNoun: conditionnative
-ive, -ative, -itiveAdjective: having the quality offestive, cooperative, sensitive
-izeVerb: causefantasize
jac, jectthrowreject, eject, project, trajectory, interject, dejected, inject, ejaculate, adjacent
join, junctjoinadjoining, enjoin, juncture, conjunction, injunction, conjunction
jug, junct, justto joinjunction, adjust, conjugal
juvenyoungjuvenile, rejuvenate
laborworklaborious, belabor
lau, lav, lot, lutwashlaunder, lavatory, lotion, ablution, dilute
lect, leg, ligchoose, gather, select, readcollect, legible, eligible
leglawlegal, legislate, legislature, legitimize
-lessAdjective: without, missingmotiveless
levilightalleviate, levitate, levity
lex, leag, leglawlegal, college, league
liber, liverfreeliberty, liberal, liberalize, deliverance
lidestrikecollide, nuclide
literlettersliterary, literature, literal, alliteration, obliterate
loc, locoplace, arealocation, locally, locality, allocate, locomotion
log, logo, ologyword, study, say, speech, reason, studycatalog, prologue, dialogue, zoology, logo
loqu, locuttalk, speakeloquent, loquacious, colloquial, circumlocution
luc, lum, lun, lus, lustlighttranslucent, luminary, luster, luna, illuminate, illustrate
-lyAdverb: in the manner offluently
macr-, macerleanemaciated, meager
magngreatmagnify, magnificent, magnanimous, magnate, magnitude, magnum
mainstrength, foremostmainstream, mainsail, domain, remain
malbad, badlymalformation, maladjusted, dismal, malady, malcontent,malfunction, malfeasance, maleficent
man, manuhand, make, domanual, manage, manufacture, manacle, manicure, manifest, maneuver, emancipate, management
mandcommandmandatory, remand, mandate
maniamadnessmania, maniac, kleptomania, pyromania
mar, mari, mersea, poolmarine, marsh, maritime, mermaid
matrimothermatrimony, maternal, matriarchate, matron
medihalf, middle, between, halfwaymediate, medieval, Mediterranean, mediocre, medium
megagreat, millionmegaphone, megaton, megaflop, megalomaniac, megabyte, megalopolis
memrecall, remembermemo, commemoration, memento, memoir, memorable
mentmindmental, mention
-mentNoun: condition or resultdocument
mesomiddlemesomorph, mesoamerica, mesosphere
metabeyond, changemetaphor, metamorphosis, metabolism, metahistorical, metainformation
metermeasuremeter, voltammeter, barometer, thermometer
metradmeasure, apportionmetrics, asymmetric, parametric, telemetry
microsmall, millionthmicroscope, microfilm, microcard, microwave, micrometer, microvolt
migrawandermigrate, emigrant, immigrate
mill, kilothousandmillennium, kilobyte, kiloton
millithousandthmillisecond, milligram, millivolt
minlittle, smallminute, minor, minuscule
miswrong, bad, badlymisconduct, misinform, misinterpret, mispronounce, misnomer, mistake, misogynist
mit, misssendemit, remit, submit, admit, commit, permit, transmit, omit, intermittent, mission, missile
mob, mov, motmovemotion, remove, mobile, motor
monwarn, remindmonument, admonition, monitor, premonition
monoonemonopoly, monotype, monologue, mononucleosis, monorail, monotheist,
mor, mortmortal, deathmortal, immortal, mortality, mortician, mortuary
morphshape, formamorphous, dimorphic, metamorphosis, morphology, polymorphic, morpheme, amorphous
multimany, muchmultifold, multilingual, multiped, multiply, multitude, multipurpose, multinational
nanobillionthnanosecond, nanobucks
nasc, nat, gnant, naito be bornnascent, native, pregnant, naive
nat, nascto be from, to spring forthinnate, natal, native, renaissance
neonewNeolithic, nuveau riche, neologism, neophyte, neonate
-nessNoun: state, condition, qualitykindness
neurnerveneuritis, neuropathic, neurologist, neural, neurotic
nomlaw, orderautonomy, astronomy, gastronomy, economy
nom, nymnamenominate, synonym
nomen, nominnamenomenclature, nominate, ignominious
nonnotnonferrous, nonsense, nonabrasive, nondescript
novnewnovel, renovate, novice, nova, innovate
nox, nocnightnocturnal, equinox, noctilucent
numernumbernumeral, numeration, enumerate, innumerable
ob, oc, of, optoward, against, in the wayoppose, occur, offer, obtain
octeightoctopus, octagon, octogenarian, octave
oligofew, littleOligocene, oligosaccharide, oligotrophic, oligarchy
omniall, everyomnipotent, omniscient, omnipresent, omnivorous
onymnameanonymous, pseudonym, antonym, synonym
operworkoperate, cooperate, opus
-orNoun: condition or activityvalor, honor, humor, minor
orthostraight, correctorthodox, orthodontist, orthopedic, unorthodox
-oryNoun: place for, serves forterritory, rectory
-ous, -eous, -ose, -iousAdjective: having the quality of, relating toadventurous, courageous, verbose, fractious
overexcessive, aboveoverwork, overall, overwork
pacpeacepacifist, pacify, pacific ocean
pair, parearrange, assemblage, tworepair, impair, compare, prepare
paleooldPaleozoic, Paleolithic, paleomagnetism, paleopsychology
panallPan-American, pan-African, panacea, pandemonium (place of all the demons),
parabesideparadox, paraprofessional, paramedic, paraphrase, parachute
pat, pass, pathfeel, sufferpatient, passion, sympathy, pathology
pater, patrfatherpaternity, patriarch, patriot, patron, patronize
path, pathyfeeling, sufferingpathos, sympathy, antipathy, apathy, telepathy
ped, podfootpedal, impede, pedestrian, centipede, tripod, podiatry, antipode, podium
pedochildorthopedic, pedagogue, pediatrics
pel, pulsdrive, push, urgecompel, dispel, expel, repel, propel, pulse, impulse, pulsate, compulsory, expulsion, repulsive
pend, pens, pondhang, weighpendant, pendulum, suspend, appendage, pensive, append
perthrough, intensivepersecute, permit, perspire, perforate, persuade
periaroundperiscope, perimeter, perigee, periodontal
phageeatmacrophage, bacteriophage
phan, phas, phen, fan, phant, fantshow, make visiblephantom, fantasy
phespeakblaspheme, cipher, phenomenon, philosopher
phillovephilosopher, philanthropy, philharmonic, bibliophile
phlegmainflammationphlegm, phlegmatic
phobia, phobosfearphobia, claustrophobia, acrophobia, aquaphobia, ergophobia, homophobia
phonsoundtelephone, phonics, phonograph, phonetic, homophone, microphone, symphony, euphonious
phot, photolightphotograph, photoelectric, photogenic, photosynthesis, photon
picotrillionthpicofarad, picocurie, picovolt
pictpaint, show, drawpicture, depict
plac, plaispleaseplacid, placebo, placate, complacent
pli, plyfoldreply, implicate, ply
plorecry out, wailimplore, exploration, deploring
plu, plur, plusmoreplural, pluralist, plus
pneuma, pneumonbreathpneumatic, pneumonia,
podfoot, feetpodiatry, tripod
policitymetropolis, police, politics, Indianapolis, megalopolis, acropolis
polymanypolytheist, polygon, polygamy, polymorphous
pon, pos, poundplace, putpostpone, component, opponent, proponent, expose, impose, deposit, posture, position, expound, impound
poppeoplepopulation, populous, popular
portcarryporter, portable, transport, report, export, import, support, transportation
portionpart, shareportion, proportion
postafter, behindpostpone, postdate
potpowerpotential, potentate, impotent
pre, purbeforeprecede
prehendereseize, graspapprehend, comprehend, comprehensive, prehensile
prin, prim, primefirstprimacy, prima donna, primitive, primary, primal, primeval, prince, principal
profor, fowardpropel
protofirstprototype, protocol, protagonist, protozoan, Proterozoic, protoindustrial
psychmind, soulpsyche, psychiatry, psychology, psychosis
punctpoint, dotpunctual, punctuation, puncture, acupuncture, punctuation
putethinkdispute, computer
quat, quadfourquadrangle, quadruplets
quint, pentafivequintet, quintuplets, pentagon, pentane, pentameter
quipshipequip, equipment
quir, quis, quest, querseek, askquery, inquire, exquisite, quest
reback, againreport, realign, retract, revise, regain
reg, rectistraightenregiment, regular, rectify, correct, direct, rectangle
retrobackwardsretrorocket, retrospect, retrogression, retroactive
ri, ridi, risilaughterderide, ridicule, ridiculous, derision, risible
rog, rogaaskprerogative, interrogation, derogatory
ruptbreakrupture, interrupt, abrupt, disrupt, ruptible
sacr, sanc, secrsacredsacred, sacrosanct, sanction, consecrate, desecrate
salv, salusafe, healthysalvation, salvage, salutation
sanctholysanctify, sanctuary, sanction, sanctimonious, sacrosanct
sat, satisenoughsatient, saturate, satisfy
sci, scio, scientiaknowscience, conscious, omniscient, cognocienti
scopesee, watchtelescope, microscope, kaleidoscope, periscope, stethoscope
scrib, scriptwritescribe, scribble, inscribe, describe, subscribe, prescribe, manuscript
seapart, move away fromsecede
sect, seccutintersect, transect, dissect, secant, section
sed, sess, sidsitsediment, session, obsession, possess, preside, president, reside, subside
semihalf, partialsemifinal, semiconscious, semiannual, semimonthly, semicircle
sen, scenold, grow oldsenior, senator, senile, senescence, evanescent
sent, sensfeel, thinksentiment, consent, resent, dissent, sentimental, sense, sensation, sensitive, sensory, dissension
septsevenseptet, septennial
sequ, secu, suefollowsequence, consequence, sequel, subsequent, prosecute, consecutive, second, ensue, pursue
servsave, serve, keepservant, service, subservient, servitude, preserve, conserve, reservation, deserve, conservation, observe
-shipNoun: status, conditionrelationship, friendship
sign, signisign, mark, sealsignal, signature, design, insignia, significant
simil, simullike, resemblingsimilar, assimilate, simulate, simulacrum, simultaneous
sist, sta, stitstand, withstand, make upassist, insist, persist, circumstance, stamina, status, state, static, stable, stationary, substitute
socito join, companionssociable, society
sol, solusalonesolo, soliloquy, solitaire, solitude, solitary, isolate
solv, solu, solutloosen, explainsolvent, solve, absolve, resolve, soluble, solution, resolution, resolute, dissolute, absolution
somnsleepinsomnia, somnambulist
sophwisesophomore (wise fool), philosophy, sophisticated
spec, spect, spi, spiclook, seespecimen, specific, spectator, spectacle, aspect, speculate, inspect, respect, prospect, retrospective, introspective, expect, conspicuous
sperrender favorableprosper
sphereball, spheresphere, stratosphere, hemisphere, spheroid
spirbreathspirit, conspire, inspire, aspire, expire, perspire, respiration
stand, stant, stab, stat, stan, sti, sta, st, steadstandstature, establish, stance
-sterpersonmobster, monster
strain, strict, string, stigebind, pull, draw tightstringent, strict, restrict, constrict, restrain, boa constrictor
stru, struct, stroy, strybuildconstrue, structure, construct, instruct, obstruct, destruction, destroy, industry, ministry
sub, suc, suf, sup, sur, susunder, below, from, secretly, instead ofsustain, survive, support, suffice, succeed, submerge, submarine, substandard, subnormal, subvert
sume, sumptake, use, wasteconsume, assume, sump, presumption
super, supraover, abovesuperior, suprarenal, superscript, supernatural, superimpose, supercede
syn, symtogether, at the same timesympathy, synthesis, synchronous, syndicate
tact, tang, tag, tig, tingtouchtactile, contact, intact, intangible, tangible, contagious, contiguous, contingent
tain, ten, tent, tinhold, keep, haveretain, continue, content, tenacious
tect, tegcoverdetect, protect, tegular, tegument
teledistance, far, from afartelephone, telegraph, telegram, telescope, television, telephoto, telecast, telepathy, telepathy
tem, tempotimetempo, temporary, extemporaneously, contemporary, pro tem, temporal
ten, tin, tainholdtenacious, tenant, tenure, untenable, detention, retentive, content, pertinent, continent, obstinate, contain, abstain, pertain, detain
tend, tent, tensstretch, straintendency, extend, intend, contend, pretend, superintend, tender, extent, tension, pretense
teratrillionterabyte, teraflop
termend, boundary, limitexterminate, terminal
terr, terraearthterrain, terrarium, territory, terrestrial
testto bear witnesstestament, detest, testimony, attest, testify
the, theoGod, a godmonotheism, polytheism, atheism, theology
thermheatthermometer, theorem, thermal, thermos bottle, thermostat, hypothermia
thesis, thetplace, putantithesis, hypothesis, synthesis, epithet
tiredraw, pullattire, retire, entire
tomcutatom (not cutable), appendectomy, tonsillectomy, dichotomy, anatomy
tor, tors, torttwisttorture, retort, extort, distort, contort, torsion, tortuous, torturous
toxpoisontoxic, intoxicate, antitoxin
tract, tra, trai, treatdrag, draw, pullattract, tractor, traction, extract, retract, protract, detract, subtract, contract, intractable
transacross, beyond, changetransform, transoceanic, transmit, transportation, transducer
trithreetripod, triangle, trinity, trilateral
tribpay, bestowtribute, contribute, attribute, retribution, tributary
tributegivecontribute, distribute, tributary
turbodisturbturbulent, disturb, turbid, turmoil
typprinttype, prototype, typical, typography, typewriter, typology, typify
ultimalastultimate, ultimatum
umber, umbraticumshadowumbra, penumbra, (take) umbrage, adumbrate
unnot, against, oppositeunceasing, unequal
unioneuniform, unilateral, universal, unity, unanimous, unite, unison, unicorn
-ureNoun: act, condition, process, functionexposure, conjecture, measure
vacemptyvacate, vacuum, evacuate, vacation, vacant, vacuous
vadegoevade, invader
vale, vali, valustrength, worthequivalent, valiant, validity, evaluate, value, valor
veh, vectto carryvector, vehicle, convection, vehement
ven, ventcomeconvene, intervene, venue, convenient, avenue, circumvent, invent, convent, venture, event, advent, prevent
ver, veritruevery, aver, verdict, verity, verify, verisimilitude
verb, vervwordverify, veracity, verbalize, verve
vert, versturn, changeconvert, revert, advertise, versatile, vertigo, invert, reversion, extravert, introvert, diversion, introvert, convertible, reverse, controversy
viwayviable, vibrate, vibrant
vic, vicischange, substitutevicarious, vicar, vicissitude
vict, vincconquervictor, evict, convict, convince, invincible
vid, visseevideo, evident, provide, providence, visible, revise, supervise, vista, visit, vision, review, indivisible
viv, vita, vivialive, liferevive, survive, vivid, vivacious, vitality, vivisection, vital, vitamins, revitalize
voc, vokecallvocation, avocation, convocation, invocation, evoke, provoke, revoke, advocate, provocative, vocal
volwillmalevolent, benevolent, volunteer, volition
volcanfirevolcano, vulcanize, Vulcan
volv, volt, volturn about, rollrevolve, voluble, voluminous, convolution, revolt, evolution
voreat greedilyvoracious, carnivorous, herbivorous, omnivorous, devour
-wardAdverb: in a direction or mannerhomeward
-wiseAdverb: in the manner of, with regard totimewise, clockwise, bitwise
withagainstwithhold, without, withdraw, forthwith
-yNoun: state, condition, result of an activitysociety, victory
-yAdjective: marked by, havinghungry, angry, smeary, teary
zoanimalzoo (zoological garden), zoology, zodiac, protozoan


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