Expository Essay Compare And Contrast Examples For Elementary

Tips on Writing an Expository Essay

The purpose of the expository essay is to explain a topic in a logical and straightforward manner. Without bells and whistles, expository essays present a fair and balanced analysis of a subject based on facts—with no references to the writer’s opinions or emotions.

A typical expository writing prompt will use the words “explain” or “define,” such as in, “Write an essay explaining how the computer has changed the lives of students.” Notice there is no instruction to form an opinion or argument on whether or not computers have changed students’ lives. The prompt asks the writer to “explain,” plain and simple. However, that doesn’t mean expository essay writing is easy.

The Five-Step Writing Process for Expository Essays
Expository writing is a life skill. More than any other type of writing, expository writing is a daily requirement of most careers. Understanding and following the proven steps of the writing process helps all writers, including students, master the expository essay.

Expository Essay Structure
Usually, the expository essay is composed of five paragraphs. The introductory paragraph contains the thesis or main idea. The next three paragraphs, or body of the essay, provide details in support of the thesis. The concluding paragraph restates the main idea and ties together the major points of essay.

Here are expository essay tips for each part of the essay structure and writing process:

1. Prewriting for the Expository Essay
In the prewriting phase of writing an expository essay, students should take time to brainstorm about the topic and main idea. Next, do research and take notes. Create an outline showing the information to be presented in each paragraph, organized in a logical sequence.

2. Drafting the Expository Essay
When creating the initial draft of an expository essay, consider the following suggestions:

  • The most important sentence in the introductory paragraph is the topic sentence, which states the thesis or main idea of the essay. The thesis should be clearly stated without giving an opinion or taking a position. A good thesis is well defined, with a manageable scope that can be adequately addressed within a five-paragraph essay.
  • Each of the three body paragraphs should cover a separate point that develops the essay’s thesis. The sentences of each paragraph should offer facts and examples in support of the paragraph’s topic.
  • The concluding paragraph should reinforce the thesis and the main supporting ideas. Do not introduce new material in the conclusion.
  • Since an expository essay discusses an event, situation, or the views of others, and not a personal experience, students should write in the third person (“he,” “she,” or “it”), and avoid “I” or “you” sentences.

3. Revising the Expository Essay
In the revision phase, students review, modify, and reorganize their work with the goal of making it the best it can be. Keep these considerations in mind:

  • Does the essay give an unbiased analysis that unfolds logically, using relevant facts and examples?
  • Has the information been clearly and effectively communicated to the reader?
  • Watch out for “paragraph sprawl,” which occurs when the writer loses focus and veers from the topic by introducing unnecessary details.
  • Is the sentence structure varied? Is the word choice precise?
  • Do the transitions between sentences and paragraphs help the reader’s understanding?
  • Does the concluding paragraph communicate the value and meaning of the thesis and key supporting ideas?

If the essay is still missing the mark, take another look at the topic sentence. A solid thesis statement leads to a solid essay. Once the thesis works, the rest of the essay falls into place more easily.

4. Editing the Expository Essay
Next, proofread and correct errors in grammar and mechanics, and edit to improve style and clarity. While an expository essay should be clear and concise, it can also be lively and engaging. Having a friend read the essay helps writers edit with a fresh perspective.

5. Publishing the Expository Essay
Sharing an expository essay with a teacher, parent, or other reader can be both exciting and intimidating. Remember, there isn’t a writer on earth who isn’t sensitive about his or her own work. The important thing is to learn from the experience and use the feedback to make the next essay better.

Essay Variations
Essay writing is a huge part of a education today. Most students must learn to write various kinds of essays during their academic careers, including different types of expository essay writing:

  • Definition essays explain the meaning of a word, term, or concept. The topic can be a concrete subject such as an animal or tree, or it can be an abstract term, such as freedom or love. This type of essay should discuss the word’s denotation (literal or dictionary definition), as well as its connotation or the associations that a word usually brings to mind.
  • Classification essays break down a broad subject or idea into categories and groups. The writer organizes the essay by starting with the most general category and then defines and gives examples of each specific classification.
  • Compare and contrast essays describe the similarities and differences between two or more people, places, or things. Comparison tells how things are alike and contrast shows how they are different.
  • Cause and effect essays explain how things affect each other and depend on each other. The writer identifies a clear relationship between two subjects, focusing on why things happen (causes) and/or what happens as a result (effects).
  • “How to” essays, sometimes called process essays, explain a procedure, step-by-step process, or how to do something with the goal of instructing the reader.


Time4Writing Teaches Expository Essay Writing
Time4Writing essay writing courses offer a highly effective way to learn how to write the types of essays required for school, standardized tests, and college applications. A unique online writing program for elementary, middle school, and high school students, Time4Writing breaks down the writing process into manageable chunks, easily digested by young writers. Students steadily build writing skills and confidence, guided by one-on-one instruction with a dedicated, certified teacher. Our middle school Welcome to the Essay and Advanced Essay courses teach students the fundamentals of writing essays, including the expository essay. The high school Exciting Essay Writing course focuses in depth on the essay writing process with preparation for college as the goal. The courses also cover how to interpret essay writing prompts in testing situations. Read what parents are saying about their children’s writing progress in Time4Writing courses.

Student Objectives

Session 1: Understanding Compare and Contrast

Session 2: Identifying Texts that Compare and Contrast Items

Session 3: Comparing and Contrasting Items Within a Text

Session 4: Creating a Venn Diagram


Student Assessment/Reflections



Students will

  • Build their understanding of the terms compare and contrast by participating in class discussions and by using Internet resources such as the Comparison and Contrast Guide

  • Work collaboratively to identify similarities and differences among subject matter

  • Examine curriculum-based text to compare and contrast ideas

  • Demonstrate understanding of the compare and contrast strategy by visually representing information in a Venn diagram

back to top


Session 1: Understanding Compare and Contrast

1.Write the words house and nest on the board or chart paper. Make two columns and label the column on the left Compare (same) and the column on the right Contrast (different). If possible, have a picture of a house and a nest to support your English-language learning (ELL) students.

2.Have students express all of the similarities and differences between these two shelters and write them on the chart in the appropriate column. Your class chart may resemble the chart below:

Compare (same)

Contrast (different)

Both are shelters.Nests are usually smaller than houses; houses are bigger than nests.
Birds make their nests just like humans make their homes.A house has a roof.

Both use trees. Humans use lumber from trees; birds use twigs and branches.A nest is a place for the bird to lay an egg.

Both can shelter more than one inhabitant.Nests are simple; houses are more complex.
Both take up space.Houses usually have more than one room in them.
Both have to be taken care of. Birds might repair a hole; humans might repair a leak.A bird can live in a house as a pet; humans don’t live in nests as pets.
3.Discuss the terms compare and contrast. ReadWriteThink’s Comparison and Contrast Guide can be used to help explain these terms. View the online guide using an LCD projector or gather your students around the classroom computer. The first nine slides of the Comparison and Contrast Guide – encompassing the Overview, Definition, and Example tabs – are most appropriate for this discussion.

4.After sharing the Comparison and Contrast Guide, explain to students that they are going to compare and contrast items in cooperative groups. Divide the class into small groups and give each group a sheet of paper and one index card that you prepared in advance (see Preparation, Step 1). If possible have pictures or the actual objects named on the index cards available for students who need extra support. Instruct groups to draw two columns on the paper and write the words Compare (same) on top of the left-hand column and Contrast (different) on top of the right-hand column. Refer to the chart you just completed with the class as a model.

5.Explain to students that they will now list all of the characteristics that are the same about the items and all of the characteristics that are different.

6.Have students present their lists to the class. Allow students in other groups to suggest additions and changes to the lists.

back to top


Session 2: Identifying Texts that Compare and Contrast Items

1.Review the meaning of the terms compare and contrast.

2.Give each student a Compare and Contrast Tool Kit. Read through the worksheet with students and explain how they can use clue words to find the ideas and facts that two items have in common as well as those ideas and facts that are unique to each item. Comparison clue words include similar, both, and alike; contrast clue words include different, but, and instead of. Have students brainstorm other words that are used to express things that are similar or different.

3.On an LCD projector, project the Nests and Houses PowerPoint presentation for students to view, or distribute copies of the slides (see Preparation, Step 3). Read the paragraph aloud to your class, stopping throughout to think aloud. Modeling your thinking will provide the support that your struggling readers need. For example, while reading the paragraph you might share thoughts like the following:
  • “The first sentence says that there are major differences between houses and nests. The way that the sentence is worded makes me think that this paragraph is going to contrast houses and nests.”

  • “Here, it says that you might be surprised that houses and nests have some things that are the same. The way the author uses “same” in that sentence makes me think that this next part will tell me some things that are the same about nests and houses.”
4.After reading the paragraph on Slide 2, go to Slide 3 and follow the directions. This involves locating keywords that signal that the paragraph is organized in a compare and contrast format. Ask students to use their Compare and Contrast Tool Kit to help remember what the clue words are. Students can check their work on Slide 4; the clue words are highlighted within the paragraph.

5.Now that your students have practiced working through a paragraph together, tell them that they are going to work in small groups to practice identifying compare and contrast paragraphs. Divide the class into small groups and distribute copies of the four Paragraph Practice sheets. Have students read the text independently, then work with their groups to answer the questions below each paragraph. Remind students to use their Compare and Contrast Tool Kit as a guide.

Note: Take time before this session to read these paragraphs with your struggling and ELL students. Discuss the content, show photographs of the different houses discussed in each paragraph, and try to build their background knowledge before they read in their small groups. Taking time to build background knowledge will allow your struggling and ELL students to focus on the compare and contrast structure when working with their small groups.

6.Circulate among the groups as they work, focus discussions as needed, and make notes of groups that are able to identify compare and contrast paragraphs and groups that are having difficulty doing this.

7.Once all the small groups have had time to read and discuss the paragraphs, lead a class discussion about the four paragraphs and students’ use of clue words to locate comparing and contrasting information. Also ask students if there are any new clue words that should be added to the Compare and Contrast Tool Kit.

back to top


Session 3: Comparing and Contrasting Items Within a Text

1.Review the Compare and Contrast Tool Kit by reading through it and asking students to give examples of how the clue words were used in the paragraphs they read in the previous session.

2.Have students reconvene in their small groups to locate the compare and contrast information within a larger text selection. Distribute copies of the compare and contrast text that you would like them to read. This text can come from your own textbooks or from these suggested Internet Articles Written in the Compare and Contrast Format. Have students read the text independently and then work with their groups to create a list of the ideas and facts that are being compared and contrasted. Pair students who need extra support in reading with a student or adult or provide a recording of the text selection on tape.

3.Remind small groups to use their Compare and Contrast Tool Kit for reference. Circulate among the groups as they work, focus discussions as needed, and observe group interactions using the Group Skills Tracking Sheet.

4.After small groups have had time to read and generate their list of ideas and facts, gather the class together for a whole-group discussion. Ask groups to present their list to the class and explain what the author was comparing and contrasting. Challenge groups to prove their thinking by supporting their thoughts with evidence (such as clue words) from the text.

back to top


Session 4: Creating a Venn Diagram

1.Review the similarities and differences from the texts students read during Session 3. Explain that there is another way to show comparing and contrasting ideas.

2.Draw two overlapping circles (a Venn diagram) on the board or chart paper. Ask if anyone knows what kind of diagram it is. Explain that Venn diagrams are useful when comparing and contrasting two subjects, two places, two things, or even two people.

3.Explain that the outer circles are intended for contrasting information; that is, the ideas and facts that are different about or unique to each item. The middle area where the circles overlap is reserved for comparisons; the ideas and facts that the two items have in common.

4.Recall your discussion during Session 1 about the similarities and differences between nests and houses. Label one outer circle of your Venn diagram nests, the other outer circle houses, and the overlapping circle both. Ask students to help you decide where various statements about the two shelters belong on the Venn diagram.

5.Ask students to reconvene in their small groups from the previous session and create a Venn diagram using ideas from the compare and contrast selection that they read. Students may use the online Venn Diagram, the Venn Diagram mobile app, or the Venn Diagram, 2 Circles. Share the Venn Diagram Rubric with students to set expectations for their work.

Note: If students have not used the Venn Diagram tool before, take time to model how it is used. In addition, if you would like all your groups to use the interactive Venn Diagram, you will need to either arrange a computer lab time or a rotating schedule for groups to use classroom computers.

6.When all Venn diagrams have been completed, have each group share their diagram with the class. Ask the other groups if they heard a comparison or contrast that they had not included on their own Venn diagram. Permit students to add any new comparisons or contrasts to their own Venn diagrams.

7.After everyone has finished sharing, discuss with the class how the Compare and Contrast Tool Kit and the Venn diagram can help them while they are reading their textbooks in other subjects. The Tool Kit is a resource they can use to help them figure out the author’s purpose and the Venn diagram is a tool they can use to help them organize the information.

8.Decide as a class how students want to remember the information they learned about comparing, contrasting, and Venn diagrams. They may choose to create an anchor chart to hang up in the classroom for reference or keep their Compare and Contrast Tool Kit and Venn diagram in a folder or notebook that they have regular access to. Encourage them to use these tools while reading nonfiction texts in other subject areas or even during independent reading time.

back to top



  • Follow up this lesson with another ReadWriteThink lesson, “Teaching the Compare and Contrast Essay through Modeling.”

  • Have students use the Compare & Contrast Mapto plan an essay about the similarities and differences between different kinds of homes.

  • Have students use a Venn diagram to compare and contrast character traits from a story or article read in class.

  • Ask students to interview a friend or family member who has lived in the same neighborhood for a long period of time and write a paragraph expressing what has changed and what has stayed the same in the community. They can then create a Venn diagram entitled "My Neighborhood: Then and Now."

back to top



  • Use the Venn Diagram Rubric to guide your instruction and as an indicator for which students have a strong grasp of the compare and contrast strategy and which students need further instruction. If possible, continue practicing this strategy with students who need more support until they are able to independently read a compare and contrast article and create a Venn diagram. The Internet Articles Written in the Compare and Contrast Format list provides compare and contrast articles for extra practice.

  • Observe students during class discussions. Closely monitor students who do not share during whole-class discussions. Find a time to conference with them one-on-one or to observe them while they are working independently and in groups to make sure that they understand the concepts discussed in class.

  • The Group Skills Tracking Sheet can help guide your observations while students are working with partners, in groups, or independently. Use your checklist to help form small groups for extra instruction or to identify students who need remediation or modification.

back to top


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *