At some point in your study of psychology, you may be required to write a case study. These are often used in clinical cases or in situations when lab research is not possible or practical. In undergraduate courses, these are often based on a real individual, an imagined individual, or a character from a television show, film, or book.
The specific format for a case study can vary greatly. In some instances, your case study will focus solely on the individual of interest.
Other possible requirements include citing relevant research and background information on a particular topic. Always consult with your instructor for a detailed outline of your assignment.
What Is a Case Study?
A case study is an in-depth study of one person, group, or event. Much of Freud's work and theories were developed through the use of individual case studies. Some great examples of case studies in psychology include Anna O, Phineas Gage, and Genie.
In a case study, nearly every aspect of the subject's life and history is analyzed to seek patterns and causes of behavior. The hope is that learning gained from studying one case can be generalized to many others.
Unfortunately, case studies tend to be highly subjective and it is sometimes difficult to generalize results to a larger population.
One of the greatest advantages of a case study is that it allows researchers to investigate things that are often difficult to impossible to replicate in a lab.
The case study of Genie, for example, allowed researchers to study whether language could be taught even after critical periods for language development had been missed.
In Genie's case, her horrific abuse had denied her the opportunity to learn language at critical points in her development. This is clearly not something that researchers could ethically replicate, but conducting a case study on Genie allowed researchers the chance to study otherwise impossible to reproduce phenomena.
There are a few different types of case studies that psychologists and other researchers might utilize:
- Explanatory case studies are often used to do causal investigations. In other words, researchers are interested in looking at factors that may have actually caused certain things to occur.
- Exploratory case studies are sometimes used as a prelude to further, more in-depth research. This allows researchers to gather more information before developing their research questions and hypotheses.
- Descriptive case studies involve starting with a descriptive theory. The subjects are then observed and the information gathered is compared to the pre-existing theory.
- Intrinsic case studies are a type of case study in which the researcher has a personal interest in the case. Jean Piaget's observations of his own children are good examples of how an intrinsic cast study can contribute to the development of a psychological theory.
- Collective case studies involve studying a group of individuals. Researchers might study a group of people in a certain setting or look at an entire community of people.
- Instrumental case studies occur when the individual or group allows researchers to understand more than what is initially obvious to observers.
There are also different methods that can be used to conduct a case study:
- Prospective case study methods are those in which an individual or group of people is observed in order to determine outcomes. For example, a group of individuals might be watched over an extended period of time to observe the progression of a particular disease.
- Retrospective case study methods are those that involve looking at historical information. For example, researchers might start with an outcome, such as a disease, and then work their way backward to look at information about the individuals life to determine risk factors that may have contributed to the onset of the illness.
Sources of Information Used
There are a number of different sources and methods that researchers can use to gather information about an individual or group. The six major sources that have been identified by researchers are:
- Direct observation: This strategy involves observing the subject, often in a natural setting. While an individual observer is sometimes used, it is more common to utilize a group of observers.
- Interviews: One of the most important methods for gathering information in case studies. An interview can involves structured survey-type questions or more open-ended questions.
- Documents: Letters, newspaper articles, administrative records, etc.
- Archival records: Census records, survey records, name lists, etc.
- Physical artifacts: Tools, objects, instruments and other artifacts often observed during a direct observation of the subject.
- Participant observation: Involves the researcher actually serving as a participant in events and observing the actions and outcomes.
Section 1: A Case History
1. Background Information
The first section of your paper will present your client's background. Include factors such as age, gender, work, health status, family mental health history, family and social relationships, drug and alcohol history, life difficulties, goals, and coping skills and weaknesses.
2. Description of the Presenting Problem
In the next section of your case study, you will describe the problem or symptoms that the client presented with. Describe any physical, emotional, or sensory symptoms reported by the client. Thoughts, feelings, and perceptions related to the symptoms should also be noted. Any screening or diagnostic assessments that are used should also be described in detail and all scores reported.
3. Your Diagnosis
Provide your diagnosis and give the appropriate Diagnostic and Statistical Manual code. Explain how you reached your diagnosis, how the clients symptoms fit the diagnostic criteria for the disorder(s), or any possible difficulties in reaching a diagnosis.
Section 2: The Intervention
The second section of your paper will focus on the intervention used to help the client. Your instructor might require you to choose from a particular theoretical approach or ask you to summarize two or more possible treatment approaches.
Some of the possible treatment approaches you might choose to explore include:
1. Psychoanalytic Approach
Describe how a psychoanalytic therapist would view the client's problem. Provide some background on the psychoanalytic approach and cite relevant references. Explain how psychoanalytic therapy would be used to treat the client, how the client would respond to therapy, and the effectiveness of this treatment approach.
2. Cognitive-Behavioral Approach
Explain how a cognitive-behavioral therapist would approach treatment. Offer background information on cognitive-behavioral therapy and describe the treatment sessions, client response, and outcome of this type of treatment. Make note of any difficulties or successes encountered by your client during treatment.
3. Humanistic Approach
Describe a humanistic approach that could be used to treat your client, such as client-centered therapy. Provide information on the type of treatment you chose, the client's reaction to the treatment, and the end result of this approach. Explain why the treatment was successful or unsuccessful.
- Do not refer to the subject of your case study as "the client." Instead, use his or her name or a pseudonym.
- Remember to use APA format when citing references.
- Read examples of case studies to gain and idea about the style and format.
A Word From Verywell
Case studies can be a useful research tool but they need to be used wisely. In many cases, they are best utilized in situations where conducting an experiment would be difficult or impossible. They can be helpful for looking at unique situations and allow researchers to gather a great deal of information about a specific individual or group of people.
If you have been directed to write a case study for a psychology course, be sure to check with your instructor for any specific guidelines that you are required to follow.
Gagnon, YC. The Case Study as a Research Method: A Practical Handbook. Quebec: PUQ; 2010.
Yin, RK. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. Sage Publications; 2013.
Case studies are the short story of the business world. You could say a case study is a portrait of a profitable relationship between your company and a customer.
They create credibility. They showcase a real world example of a product or service in action. If they are so great, why do marketing directors complain about how difficult it is to get great case studies? Here are some ways to help you get the opportunity share amazing stories from your customers.
Build trust with your customer.
The first issue in writing a great case study is to abandon the notion of a “case study” altogether. You don’t need “a case,” right? Heck, that sounds like something you’d litigate. You want a STORY–something compelling, authentic, and real. So start by asking your clients to “help tell their story.” Don’t use the “case study” word at all. You aren’t going to court with this.
Modern stories are the new case studies
Most of your customers really do want to help you provide real information; they just balk at the formality of the theoretical “case study” structure because we inherently know conditions change so fast, they may not be the same in a year. They don’t want to be “on the record” when inherently we all know that relevant record is a dynamic relationship. So start talking about your story instead . . .
Call script for a killer case study
Imagine calling your client and saying something like this:
You: “Our agency just let us know that the most respected journal in our industry wants to do a feature article on how well we’re doing with this solution. I think we should do it–it will position your firm as the leader you are, and it definitely looks good for us to be part of your success, too. Can we make it happen?”
Your client: “Our approach is maybe thought leading– are you sure? You’re doing okay right now too, but I’m not sure we want to give away the whole recipe to our competitors or tell them about a company we work with.”
You: “That makes a lot of sense–you know, we could talk about the results, and talk a bit about the approach, but leave the details vague. That way, you remain a thought leader but your competition is in the dark. I thought taking a leading position in this space would help you . . . ”
Your client: “Sure, but we can’t endorse you either–we work with several firms like yours.”
You: “I get it–we’re just happy to be one part of your story. Let’s help each other out and find a great way to shine a light on your leadership that looks good all around. Can I set up an interview with our Write2Market writer? If you don’t like the piece, we don’t have to submit it, but I think we can tell the story, make you look like the leader you are, and not give away the secret sauce. Worth a shot?”
Your client: “Well…it is a really big trade journal. I’m working on my career, and we’re working on our thought leadership position–this might be a good idea. As long as we can keep it open around who we work with and the details of how we do it, I don’t mind sharing some of the story–let’s take next steps.”
3 things you need for a modern case study
Now you’re cooking with case study grease! To write a great case study fast, you’re going to need a few things. Let’s start with the three things you need:
- Context. What’s the larger business trend in play? Is there third party research that validates the trend?
- Organization. The reader is your next customer, so organize your story around their pain points and their journey. The NEEDS of your reader provide the outline of your case study. Use the information that is important to the reader because it addresses their “pain.”
- Objective facts. Put a dollar on the value of the solution you provide and define the ROI in detail. Often the customer loves your service or product for reasons we don’t even realize. Encourage the customer to brag about themselves and their sharpness in finding, and buying, your offering. Probe for the real reasons why working with your company is so satisfying. This will create buying triggers.
Once you have these three biggies, you’ll only need to format in the next six critical case study elements:
6 essential case study format elements
1. A lead quote or testimonial. Use a quip from an interviewed source–your client or customer–that is repeated within the body of the text.
2. A results summary. This includes three or four benefit or advantage statements—high-level bullets that explain the meat of the case. These should showcase how your company helped the firm in the case study. These points should appeal to the prospects actual pain points.
3. A challenge or problem summary that explains the problem to the reader (a prospect), using a point of view that empathizes with the reader’s perception of the problem.
4. A compelling, interesting title – the answer to a need you KNOW the reader has. Even better–make sure this has a keyword in it and you can tweet it with a relevant hashtag.
5. “About Us” section. This is one paragraph about your company, including a few notable facts and contact information.
6. A call to action. Each case study should encourage the reader to respond to something specific. Many times, these are in the left or right margin of the case study or at the bottom.”
Want to see some case study examples?Case Study Samples