Wateraid Mali Case Study Geography Online

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People, Work and DevelopmentGlossary Please learn these key words!!



Adult literacy

The percentage of the adult population that can read and write


The giving of resources by one country, or an organisation, to another country.


An unexpected event or piece of data that does not follow the normal trend or ex-pected pattern

Appropriate Technology

Technology suited to the area where it is used.

Bilateral Aid

Aid that is passed directly from one country to a partner country. Often in theform of money which means countries getting into debt when they have to pay theloan back.

Brain drain

The reduction in the number of highly qualified workers due to emigration

Brandt Line

As outlined in the Brandt Report in 1980, the Brandt line depicts the north/divideon a world map. Separating the rich north from the poorer south.

Business rates

A type of tax paid by a company

Carbon-neutral develop-ments

Developments that do not add any extra carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Thebuildings are highly energy efficient and may use renewable technologies


When people who live in rural areas travel every day to jobs in urban areas


When cities grow so large that they merge together i.e. Liverpool and Manchester


Economic growth tends to be the most rapid in one part of a country


A shift in employment from manufacturing to jobs that provide a service.


The level of economic growth of a country or region and the processes of changetaking place within it.

Development aid

Aid/help that is give to tackle poverty and improve quality of life e.g. improvingeducation or healthcare

Development gap

The difference in wealth between rich and poor countries

Digital divide

The gap between those who have digital technology (usually defined as computerownership and internet connection) and those who do not

Direct benefit

An immediate advantage created by an improvement in the economy (a direct bene-fit of a new company is new jobs)


People who have lost their home due to conflict, or an environmental disaster orbecause their land has been used for a new development e.g. the creation of a newreservoir


Where a much wider range of new business opportunities and jobs are created in aregion

Economic migrant

A migrant who moves in order to find work

Mali is one of the hottest places on Earth, with land stretching far into the Sahara desert.

Most people live in the south, but there are still many nomadic groups in the northern deserts. An ethnically diverse population, Malians are known for their colourful robes, virtuosic music culture and strong storytelling traditions.

Four out of five people rely on farming for a living, despite most of the country having very little rain and frequent droughts. Half live in poverty, and finding water is a constant concern. This has improved in recent years – three in four people now have clean water – but only three in ten people have a decent toilet.

The Government has committed to provide everyone in Mali with these essentials by 2030. Without them, people can’t live dignified, healthy lives. With them, they can unlock their potential, break free from poverty, and change their lives for good.

We have the commitment, experience, resourcefulness and connections to help achieve this. For example, we share innovative, low-cost technologies with nomadic groups, resolve conflicts around water use, and promote good hygiene through art and traditional storytelling.

With recent political unrest and irregular rainfall, the solutions we choose need to fit with wider plans to tackle these complex issues. By partnering with others, we put clean water, decent toilets and good hygiene at the heart of improvements in education, health, environment and food security.

In Mali’s fragile environment, stable, long-lasting services are vital. We are working with our partners and local people to build their skills so they can keep facilities working, day after day, whatever the changing climate brings. Together we can achieve our goal within a generation.


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